File Name: seek and find science water cycle answer key .zip
The sea or ocean is the body of salty water that covers much of the Earth 's surface. Humans harnessing and studying the sea have been recorded since ancient times, and evidenced well into prehistory , while its modern scientific study is called oceanography. The most abundant solid dissolved in seawater is sodium chloride. The water also contains salts of magnesium , calcium , potassium , and mercury , amongst many other elements, some in minute concentrations.
Salinity varies widely, being lower near the surface and the mouths of large rivers and higher in the depths of the ocean; however, the relative proportions of dissolved salts vary little across the oceans.
Winds blowing over the surface of the sea produce waves , which break when they enter the shallow water. Winds also create surface currents through friction, setting up slow but stable circulations of water throughout the oceans.
The directions of the circulation are governed by factors, including the shapes of the continents and Earth's rotation the Coriolis effect.
Deep-sea currents, known as the global conveyor belt , carry cold water from near the poles to every ocean. Tides , the generally twice-daily rise and fall of sea levels , are caused by Earth's rotation and the gravitational effects of the orbiting Moon and, to a lesser extent, of the Sun. Tides may have a very high range in bays or estuaries. Submarine earthquakes arising from tectonic plate movements under the oceans can lead to destructive tsunamis , as can volcanoes, huge landslides , or the impact of large meteorites.
A wide variety of organisms , including bacteria , protists , algae , plants, fungi, and animals, live in the sea, which offers a wide range of marine habitats and ecosystems , ranging vertically from the sunlit surface and shoreline to the great depths and pressures of the cold, dark abyssal zone , and in latitude from the cold waters under polar ice caps to the colourful diversity of coral reefs in tropical regions.
Many of the major groups of organisms evolved in the sea and life may have started there. The sea provides substantial supplies of food for humans, mainly fish , but also shellfish , mammals and seaweed , whether caught by fishermen or farmed underwater. Other human uses of the sea include trade , travel, mineral extraction , power generation , warfare , and leisure activities such as swimming , sailing , and scuba diving.
Many of these activities create marine pollution. The sea has therefore been for humans an integral element throughout history and culture. The sea is the interconnected system of all the Earth's oceanic waters, including the Atlantic , Pacific , Indian , Southern and Arctic Oceans.
There is no sharp distinction between seas and oceans , though generally seas are smaller, and are often partly as marginal seas or wholly as inland seas bordered by land. Earth is the only known planet with seas of liquid water on its surface,  p22 although Mars possesses ice caps and similar planets in other solar systems may have oceans. The remainder about 0. The scientific study of water and Earth's water cycle is hydrology ; hydrodynamics studies the physics of water in motion. The more recent study of the sea in particular is oceanography.
This began as the study of the shape of the ocean's currents  but has since expanded into a large and multidisciplinary field:  it examines the properties of seawater ; studies waves , tides , and currents ; charts coastlines and maps the seabeds ; and studies marine life. Both are informed by chemical oceanography , which studies the behavior of elements and molecules within the oceans: particularly, at the moment, the ocean's role in the carbon cycle and carbon dioxide 's role in the increasing acidification of seawater.
Marine and maritime geography charts the shape and shaping of the sea, while marine geology geological oceanography has provided evidence of continental drift and the composition and structure of the Earth , clarified the process of sedimentation , and assisted the study of volcanism and earthquakes.
A characteristic of seawater is that it is salty. While the constituents of table salt sodium and chloride make up about 85 percent of the solids in solution, there are also other metal ions such as magnesium and calcium , and negative ions including sulphate, carbonate, and bromide.
Despite variations in the levels of salinity in different seas, the relative composition of the dissolved salts is stable throughout the world's oceans. Although the amount of salt in the ocean remains relatively constant within the scale of millions of years, various factors affect the salinity of a body of water.
Sea temperature depends on the amount of solar radiation falling on its surface. There is a continuous circulation of water in the oceans. Warm surface currents cool as they move away from the tropics, and the water becomes denser and sinks. The cold water moves back towards the equator as a deep sea current, driven by changes in the temperature and density of the water, before eventually welling up again towards the surface. These break into small pieces and coalesce into flat discs that form a thick suspension known as frazil.
In calm conditions this freezes into a thin flat sheet known as nilas , which thickens as new ice forms on its underside. In more turbulent seas, frazil crystals join together into flat discs known as pancakes. These slide under each other and coalesce to form floes. In the process of freezing, salt water and air are trapped between the ice crystals. The amount of oxygen found in seawater depends primarily on the plants growing in it.
These are mainly algae, including phytoplankton , with some vascular plants such as seagrasses. In daylight the photosynthetic activity of these plants produces oxygen, which dissolves in the seawater and is used by marine animals. At night, photosynthesis stops, and the amount of dissolved oxygen declines.
In the deep sea, where insufficient light penetrates for plants to grow, there is very little dissolved oxygen. In its absence, organic material is broken down by anaerobic bacteria producing hydrogen sulphide. Much light gets reflected at the surface, and red light gets absorbed in the top few metres. Wind blowing over the surface of a body of water forms waves that are perpendicular to the direction of the wind.
The friction between air and water caused by a gentle breeze on a pond causes ripples to form. A strong blow over the ocean causes larger waves as the moving air pushes against the raised ridges of water. The waves reach their maximum height when the rate at which they are travelling nearly matches the speed of the wind. In open water, when the wind blows continuously as happens in the Southern Hemisphere in the Roaring Forties , long, organised masses of water called swell roll across the ocean.
The size of the waves depends on the fetch , the distance that the wind has blown over the water and the strength and duration of that wind. When waves meet others coming from different directions, interference between the two can produce broken, irregular seas. The top of a wave is known as the crest, the lowest point between waves is the trough and the distance between the crests is the wavelength. The wave is pushed across the surface of the sea by the wind, but this represents a transfer of energy and not a horizontal movement of water.
As waves approach land and move into shallow water , they change their behavior. If approaching at an angle, waves may bend refraction or wrap rocks and headlands diffraction. When the wave reaches a point where its deepest oscillations of the water contact the seabed , they begin to slow down. This pulls the crests closer together and increases the waves' height , which is called wave shoaling.
When the ratio of the wave's height to the water depth increases above a certain limit, it " breaks ", toppling over in a mass of foaming water. A tsunami is an unusual form of wave caused by an infrequent powerful event such as an underwater earthquake or landslide, a meteorite impact, a volcanic eruption or a collapse of land into the sea. These events can temporarily lift or lower the surface of the sea in the affected area, usually by a few feet. The potential energy of the displaced seawater is turned into kinetic energy, creating a shallow wave, a tsunami, radiating outwards at a velocity proportional to the square root of the depth of the water and which therefore travels much faster in the open ocean than on a continental shelf.
As a tsunami moves into shallower water its speed decreases, its wavelength shortens and its amplitude increases enormously,  behaving in the same way as a wind-generated wave in shallow water, but on a vastly greater scale. Either the trough or the crest of a tsunami can arrive at the coast first. Much of the destruction may be caused by the flood water draining back into the sea after the tsunami has struck, dragging debris and people with it.
Often several tsunami are caused by a single geological event and arrive at intervals of between eight minutes and two hours. The first wave to arrive on shore may not be the biggest or most destructive. Wind blowing over the surface of the sea causes friction at the interface between air and sea. Not only does this cause waves to form but it also makes the surface seawater move in the same direction as the wind. Although winds are variable, in any one place they predominantly blow from a single direction and thus a surface current can be formed.
Westerly winds are most frequent in the mid-latitudes while easterlies dominate the tropics. There are five main gyres in the world's oceans: two in the Pacific, two in the Atlantic and one in the Indian Ocean. Other smaller gyres are found in lesser seas and a single gyre flows around Antarctica. These gyres have followed the same routes for millennia, guided by the topography of the land, the wind direction and the Coriolis effect. The surface currents flow in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and anticlockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
The water moving away from the equator is warm, and that flowing in the reverse direction has lost most of its heat. These currents tend to moderate the Earth's climate, cooling the equatorial region and warming regions at higher latitudes.
Surface currents only affect the top few hundred metres yards of the sea, but there are also large-scale flows in the ocean depths caused by the movement of deep water masses. A main deep ocean current flows through all the world's oceans and is known as the thermohaline circulation or global conveyor belt.
This movement is slow and is driven by differences in density of the water caused by variations in salinity and temperature. Both these factors make it denser, and the water sinks. From the deep sea near Greenland, such water flows southwards between the continental landmasses on either side of the Atlantic.
When it reaches the Antarctic, it is joined by further masses of cold, sinking water and flows eastwards. It then splits into two streams that move northwards into the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Here it is gradually warmed, becomes less dense, rises towards the surface and loops back on itself. It takes a thousand years for this circulation pattern to be completed. Besides gyres, there are temporary surface currents that occur under specific conditions.
When waves meet a shore at an angle, a longshore current is created as water is pushed along parallel to the coastline. The water swirls up onto the beach at right angles to the approaching waves but drains away straight down the slope under the effect of gravity. The larger the breaking waves, the longer the beach and the more oblique the wave approach, the stronger is the longshore current.
It may occur at a gap in a sandbar or near a man-made structure such as a groyne. This cold water is often rich in nutrients and creates blooms of phytoplankton and a great increase in the productivity of the sea. Tides are the regular rise and fall in water level experienced by seas and oceans in response to the gravitational influences of the Moon and the Sun, and the effects of the Earth's rotation.
During each tidal cycle, at any given place the water rises to a maximum height known as "high tide" before ebbing away again to the minimum "low tide" level.
As the water recedes, it uncovers more and more of the foreshore , also known as the intertidal zone. The difference in height between the high tide and low tide is known as the tidal range or tidal amplitude. Most places experience two high tides each day, occurring at intervals of about 12 hours and 25 minutes.
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Students will enjoy learning about the Water Cycle with Seek & Find Science Doodles. Water Cycle key terms include Precipitation.
The sea or ocean is the body of salty water that covers much of the Earth 's surface. Humans harnessing and studying the sea have been recorded since ancient times, and evidenced well into prehistory , while its modern scientific study is called oceanography. The most abundant solid dissolved in seawater is sodium chloride. The water also contains salts of magnesium , calcium , potassium , and mercury , amongst many other elements, some in minute concentrations. Salinity varies widely, being lower near the surface and the mouths of large rivers and higher in the depths of the ocean; however, the relative proportions of dissolved salts vary little across the oceans.
Carbon, like water, is essential to life as we know it on Earth. It is a component of our DNA and of the foods we eat, and its presence in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide, a "greenhouse gas" helps keep our planet warm enough to be habitable. Like water, carbon continuously cycles through the major components of the Earth system—the Geosphere and the Biosphere - driven by processes that occur at incredibly different time scales, from fractions of a second photosynthesis to millions of years formation of fossil fuels.
The worksheets span a wide array of topics. The interesting thing is that we always find a way to cover elementary, middle school, and high school topics and leveled work.
Great for student engagement and retention. Your students will love searching for science and will have a fun coloring sheet when they are done! This is a No Prep Activity! Perfect to use in interactive notebooks- just print and go- or use TpT's digital overlay and assign to your students in Google Classroom. Water Cycle Science Trading Cards. Water Cycle Science Cubes.
Station Model Lab Answer Key Quizlet 1 third; bar drawn and labeled appropriately; 1 third labeled 4. Note: Some solids, liquids, and gases are made of atoms, and some are made of molecules. Lab 11 Mitosis Answer Key. Cell 1 she identified as a plant cell and Cell 2 as an animal cell. Oxygen is created and you can see the plant "breathe it out" as tiny bubbles. A water ride at a water park is analogous to an electric circuit. Scholar Assignments are your one stop shop for all your assignment help needs.
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Students will enjoy learning about the Water Cycle with Seek & Find Science Doodles. Water Cycle key terms include Precipitation, Evaporation, Transpiration, Condensastion, Collection, Run-off, This resource includes a ready-to-use interactive version of the PDF. Assign it Teacher/student self-assessment answer key.Reply