blood diseases and disorders pdf

Blood diseases and disorders pdf

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Blood Diseases: White and Red Blood Cells, Platelets and Plasma

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All three cell types form in the bone marrow, which is the soft tissue inside your bones. White blood cells help your body fight infections. Platelets help your blood to clot. Blood cell disorders impair the formation and function of one or more of these types of blood cells.

Symptoms will vary depending on the type of blood cell disorder. Common symptoms of red blood cell disorders are:. These are cells in your blood that carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. There are a variety of these disorders, which can affect both children and adults. Anemia is one type of red blood cell disorder.

A lack of the mineral iron in your blood commonly causes this disorder. Your body needs iron to produce the protein hemoglobin, which helps your red blood cells RBCs carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body.

There are many types of anemia. Thalassemia is a group of inherited blood disorders. These disorders are caused by genetic mutations that prevent the normal production of hemoglobin.

Organs then do not function properly. These disorders can result in:. Polycythemia is a blood cancer caused by a gene mutation. If you have polycythemia, your bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. This causes your blood to thicken and flow more slowly, putting you at risk for blood clots that can cause heart attacks or strokes. There is no known cure. Treatment involves phlebotomy, or removing blood from your veins, and medication. White blood cells leukocytes help defend the body against infection and foreign substances.

These disorders can affect both adults and children. Your white blood cells change and grow out of control. Leukemia may be either acute or chronic. Chronic leukemia advances more slowly. Myelodysplastic syndrome MDS is a condition affecting the white blood cells in your bone marrow. The body produces too many immature cells, called blasts. The blasts multiply and crowd out the mature and healthy cells. Myelodysplastic syndrome may progress either slowly or quite fast.

It sometimes leads to leukemia. Blood platelets are the first responders when you have a cut or other injury. They gather at the site of the injury, creating a temporary plug to stop blood loss.

If you have a platelet disorder, your blood has one of three abnormalities:. Platelet disorders are primarily genetic, meaning they are inherited.

Some of these disorders include:. Von Willebrand disease is the most common inherited bleeding disorder. It is caused by a deficiency of a protein that helps your blood clot, called von Willebrand factor VWF. Hemophilia is probably the best-known blood clotting disorder. It occurs almost always in males.

The most serious complication of hemophilia is excessive and prolonged bleeding. This bleeding can be either inside or outside your body. The bleeding can start for no apparent reason.

Treatment involves a hormone called desmopressin for mild type A, which can promote release of more of the reduced clotting factor, and infusions of blood or plasma for types B and C. Primary thrombocythemia is a rare disorder that can lead to increased blood clotting. This puts you at higher risk for stroke or heart attack. The disorder occurs when your bone marrow produces too many platelets. Certain drugs and medical conditions can also affect the functioning of platelets.

Be sure to coordinate all your medications with your doctor, even over-the-counter ones you choose yourself. The Canadian Hemophilia Association CHA warns that the following common drugs may affect platelets, especially if taken long-term. There are a large variety of disorders that affect the plasma cells, the type of white blood cells in your body that make antibodies.

Plasma cell myeloma is a rare blood cancer that develops in the plasma cells in the bone marrow. Malignant plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and form tumors called plasmacytomas , generally in bones such as the spine, hips, or ribs.

The abnormal plasma cells produce abnormal antibodies called monoclonal M proteins. These proteins build up in the bone marrow, crowding out the healthy proteins. This can lead to thickened blood and kidney damage. The cause of plasma cell myeloma is unknown.

Your doctor may order several tests, including a complete blood count CBC to see how many of each type of blood cell you have. Your doctor may also order a bone marrow biopsy to see if there are any abnormal cells developing in your marrow. This will involve removing a small amount of bone marrow for testing.

Your treatment plan depends on the cause of your illness, your age, and your overall health status. Your doctor may use a combination of treatments to help correct your blood cell disorder. Some pharmacotherapy options include medications such as Nplate romiplostim to stimulate the bone marrow to produce more platelets in a platelet disorder.

For white blood cell disorders, antibiotics can help fight infections. Dietary supplements such as iron and vitamin B-9 or B can treat anemia due to deficiencies.

Vitamin B-9 is also called folate , and vitamin B is also known as cobalamin. Bone marrow transplants may repair or replace damaged marrow. These involve transferring stem cells, usually from a donor, to your body to help your bone marrow begin producing normal blood cells.

A blood transfusion is another option to help you replace lost or damaged blood cells. During a blood transfusion, you receive an infusion of healthy blood from a donor. Both procedures require specific criteria to succeed. Bone marrow donors must match or be as close as possible to your genetic profile.

Blood transfusions require a donor with a compatible blood type. The variety of blood cell disorders means that your experience of living with one of these conditions may vary greatly from someone else.

Early diagnosis and treatment are the best ways to ensure that you live a healthy and full life with a blood cell disorder. Different side effects of treatments vary depending on the person. Research your options, and speak with your doctor to find the right treatment for you. Finding a support group or counselor to help you deal with any emotional stress about having a blood cell disorder is also helpful. The test is usually part of a complete blood count…. A bone marrow biopsy is when your doctor takes a small sample of your solid bone marrow tissue.

Learn how to prepare for this test and minimize pain. A complete blood count, or CBC, measures several components of your blood and can help diagnose a broad range of conditions, from anemia and to cancer. Leukemia and lymphoma are blood cancers. Learn more about these conditions. Thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin.

Learn more about its symptoms and how it's diagnosed. Find information on bleeding disorder symptoms, causes, and complications.

A bone marrow transplant is a medical procedure performed to replace bone marrow that has been damaged or destroyed by disease or chemotherapy. Symptoms Red blood cell disorders White blood cell disorders Platelet disorders Plasma cell disorders Diagnosis Treatment Outlook What are blood cell disorders? What are the symptoms of blood cell disorders? Red blood cell disorders.

White blood cell disorders. Platelet disorders. Plasma cell disorders. How are blood cell disorders diagnosed? What are the treatment options for blood cell disorders? What is the long-term outlook? Medically reviewed by Shuvani Sanyal, M.

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Blood Diseases: White and Red Blood Cells, Platelets and Plasma

There is a range of different types and symptoms depend on the type. However, some common symptoms include unexplained fatigue and weight loss. Most blood disorders decrease the number of cells, proteins, platelets, or nutrients in the blood, or interfere with their function. A majority of blood disorders are caused by mutations in parts of specific genes and can be passed down in families. Some medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can also cause blood disorders to develop.

Blood disorders can cause various symptoms in almost any area of the body. Most commonly, symptoms are caused by decreases in the blood components. Decreased red blood cells and hemoglobin can cause symptoms of anemia , such as fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Decreased white blood cells or immune system proteins can cause recurrent fever and infections. Decreased platelets or blood clotting factors can cause abnormal bleeding and bruising.

All three cell types form in the bone marrow, which is the soft tissue inside your bones. White blood cells help your body fight infections. Platelets help your blood to clot. Blood cell disorders impair the formation and function of one or more of these types of blood cells. Symptoms will vary depending on the type of blood cell disorder.


of people at risk of or affected by a blood disorder. Through public health practice​, the DBD is ensuring that.


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If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Blood is an extremely complex fluid, composed of both formed elements red cells, white cells, platelets and plasma. Red blood cells erythrocytes are the most common formed elements, carrying oxygen to the cells of the body via their main component, hemoglobin. Platelets are the formed elements that participate in coagulation.

Genetic blood disorders: Questions you need to ask

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can.

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SCD is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders. Healthy red blood cells are round, and they move through small blood vessels to carry oxygen to all parts of the body. The sickle cells die early, which causes a constant shortage of red blood cells. Also, when they travel through small blood vessels, they get stuck and clog the blood flow. This can cause pain and other serious problems such infection, acute chest syndrome and stroke. This is commonly called sickle cell anemia and is usually the most severe form of the disease. Hemoglobin is a protein that allows red blood cells to carry oxygen to all parts of the body.

1 comments

  • Tangtalima 14.05.2021 at 00:36

    There are many different blood diseases that are diagnosed and treated by hematologists.

    Reply

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