File Name: object relations theory and self psychology in social work practice .zip
And they had pineapples and mangoes and honey and all sorts of good things to eat and drink.
His shirts hung neatly on their hangers, above three pairs of leather shoes. I was waiting for him, dressed in warm clothes and with a notebook in my bag. They spent an extra night in Paris.
By Eda Goldstein. Writing this book has provided me with the opportunity to integrate different phases of my education, training, and professional life. In my undergraduate days, the University of Chicago introduced me to a vast body of knowledge and imbued me with the importance of critical thinking. I began to recognize that the search for absolute truth is elusive and to appreciate the value of remaining open to new knowledge rather than of being wedded to one way of viewing people and the world.
Their spirits linger on. Initially, my understanding of clients and my clinical work were heavily influenced by Freudian theory and ego psychology, but during the course of my career, I became conversant with other psychodynamic and psychosocial theoretical frameworks and their practice applications. I shall always be grateful to Dr. Otto Kernberg for affording me the opportunity to work closely with him when he was conducting research on borderline disorders.
I grew professionally during the seven-year collaboration in which we co-led an intellectually stimulating interdisciplinary clinical research group at both the New York State Psychiatric Institute and the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Westchester Division. During this time, our research tried to operationalize many Kernbergian concepts and treatment principles. We vigorously debated the utility of a range of theoretical and treatment frameworks within American and British object relations theory and self psychology.
After leaving my position as Assistant Director of Social Work at New York Hospital to become a faculty member at New York University in , my clinical work expanded and I experimented with different approaches. I shall always be indebted to Dr. Marjorie Taggart White, a courageous and generous woman and a creative clinician and scholar, who helped me to grasp the significance of self psychology and to understand and implement its core concepts and treatment principles in depth.
Program in Clinical Social Work in In these roles, I have tried to help social work students, practitioners, and supervisors to gain knowledge of and to apply a range of contemporary psychodynamic concepts and treatment principles to social work practice with a broad range of clients. Much of my teaching, writing, speaking, and dissertation advisement has been related to this challenge. I also am grateful to the late Dean Shirley M. Ehrenkranz and former Deans Tom Meenaghan and Eleanore Korman for their encouragement and provision of a facilitating environment.
Over the years, I have learned a great deal from my students, supervisees, and clients. They have made the theories and treatment principles that this book addresses come alive. Likewise, I have had the opportunity to meet with social work practitioners and faculty, both locally and nationally, and in some instances internationally. I am grateful for the warm welcome that I have received in many settings and for the rich dialogue that I have been able to have with numerous individuals and groups across the country about the current state of clinical theory and practice.
The task of writing a book is lonely and arduous. I have also been fortunate in having the expert assistance of Mr. Philip Rappaport, senior editor at The Free Press.
A person-in-situation perspective has been a defining characteristic of social work practice historically. The social work profession has relied on numerous distinctive theoretical frameworks that help to explain the nature of person-environmental transactions during the lifelong developmental process Goldstein, Psychodynamic theory has occupied a prominent position in this knowledge base.
As we begin the twenty-first century, psychodynamic theory is by no means the only theoretical paradigm that is available to social workers, but it continues to have significance for social work practice. It has moved far beyond its Freudian and ego psychological base, however, and reflects newer and more diverse views of personality development and the nature of human problems. Psychodynamic thinking and treatment principles are applicable to a broad range of clients, in both short-term and long-term intervention, and across a variety of treatment modalities.
This broad and varied framework can be used to complement other formulations that inform social work practice, such as ecological, cognitive-behavioral, family systems, and group theories.
Evidence that psychodynamic theory has stood the test of time can be found in a study of practitioners drawn from the National Association of Social Workers Register of Clinical Social Workers. Respondents said they utilized 4. Additionally, it is common for social work students and practitioners to seek to advance their knowledge of psychodynamic theory and treatment principles by taking academic courses, participating in in-service training programs, enrolling in psychotherapy institutes, and attending professional workshops and conferences.
Many social work practitioners underwent psychoanalysis and sought supervision from psychoanalysts, some of whom had recently emigrated from Europe. Enthusiastic about their own treatment and educational experiences, social workers began to employ Freudian theory and psychoanalytic treatment principles in their practice Hamilton, Beginning in the late s and especially after World War II, Freudian theory underwent major modifications and transformations as social workers began to become familiar with ego psychological writings.
Throughout the s to the s, ego psychology, which focused on the more autonomous and rational aspects of the ego, led to major changes in the diagnostic approach and its successor, the psychosocial model. In the last several decades, psychodynamic frameworks and treatment models that present alternatives to Freudian theory and ego psychology have captured the attention of social workers and other mental health professionals.
Object relations and self psychological treatment approaches have moved traditional psychoanalytically informed treatment beyond its earlier rigidity and narrowness of focus and in some ways, they have provided a theoretical basis for many of the tried and true principles that have been characteristic of clinical social work practice.
These newer frameworks have led to ten important changes in the ways in which psychodynamically oriented treatment is carried out. Therapists are encouraged to be more empathic, involved, real, and genuine in their responses.
It is recognized that insight-oriented techniques, such as confrontation and interpretation, too early in treatment are not suited to work with many patients.
The concept of transference has been expanded to include more recent views on the type of relational patterns and selfobject needs that patients bring into the treatment relationship.
These may stem from their efforts to maintain safety in the face of fear, hold on to coping mechanisms that have seemed to work for them in the past, sustain their attachment to internalized relations with others, and deal with what they feel to be realistic threats to their well-being.
Additionally, there is recognition that the therapist always brings his or her own personality and organizing principles to the treatment relationship and this affects how he or she perceives and interacts with the patient.
Like Freudian theory and ego psychology, object relations theory and self psychology are developmental in nature and view adult personality characteristics as dependent upon early childhood experiences. They describe the process by which the infant takes in internalizes the outside world, thereby acquiring basic perceptions of and attitudes toward the self and others that become structuralized within the person. Many object relations theorists have put forth somewhat different formulations, so that there is not a fully unified set of concepts.
Early infant-caretaker interactions lead to the person internalizing basic attitudes toward the self and others, characteristic relational patterns, and a repertoire of defenses and internal capacities. Important developmental processes involve attachment, separation-individuation, early object loss, experiences with frustrating or bad objects, and the move from dependence to independence. Characteristic underlying problems that result from early object relations pathology include maladaptive attachment styles, separation-individuation subphase difficulties, borderline, narcissistic, paranoid, and schizoid disorders, severe and chronic depressive reactions, and false self disturbances.
These difficulties also may present in clients who show a variety of clinical symptoms and syndromes. Patients bring their pathological internalized object relations, primitive defenses, developmental deficits, as well as their capacities and strengths to the treatment situation. Treatment can modify pathological internal structures or create facilitative and reparative experiences in which new and stronger structures are acquired. Change processes in treatment result from both reparative and new experiences within the treatment relationship itself and from insight into and modification of entrenched object relations pathology.
Providing a therapeutic holding environment, pointing out dysfunctional relational patterns and defenses, engaging in a range of developmentally attuned techniques, and focusing on transference-countertransference dynamics, particularly with respect to what the client induces in the therapist or is enacting in the relationship are important components of treatment. In contrast to object relations theory, self psychology places the self rather than internalized interpersonal relationships at the center of development.
Whereas object relations theories tend to view the self as reflecting what the child takes in or internalizes from the outside, self psychology defines the self as an innate and enduring structure of the personality that has its own developmental track.
Infants are born with innate potentialities for self development but require the responsiveness of the caretaking environment in order to develop a strong, cohesive self. The individual needs to have idealizable caretakers, experiences of validation, affirmation, a sense of feeling like others, and other forms of empathic selfobject responsiveness.
When the self-structure is weak and vulnerable as a result of unattuned, neglectful, or traumatic caretaking, both the self-concept and self-esteem regulation become impaired.
The person may be at risk for developing self disorders and narcissistic vulnerability that lead to chronic problems or to periods of acute disruption later in life.
Clients bring their early unmet or thwarted selfobject needs to treatment, which provides them with a second chance to complete their development. Treatment aims at strengthening self-structures, creating greater self-cohesion and self-esteem regulation, and enabling increased self-actualization and enjoyment of life. Nevertheless, Kohut, who originated self psychology, saw his formulations as distinctive from those of object relations theory, and many of his followers have continued to hold to his position Ornstein, Throughout the book, however, I shall strive to show how both theories can contribute to understanding and working with particular individuals.
Object relations theory and self psychology are not unitary frameworks. Object relations theory is a broad term that encompasses diverse concepts, and it has generated different and sometimes conflicting treatment approaches. For many years, the American object relations theorists such as Edith Jacobson and Margaret Mahler—who showed loyalty to Freud and his daughter, Anna—were highly critical of the writings of the British object relations theorists such as Melanie Klein, W.
Fairbairn, D. Winnicott, and Harry Guntrip for rejecting many Freudian tenets. More recently, other theorists such as Otto Kernberg and Stephen Mitchell have attempted to put forth integrative models.
Likewise, since the death of Heinz Kohut, who originated self psychology, some of his associates and followers, including Daniel Stern, Michael Basch, Arnold Goldberg, Howard Bacal, Joseph Lichtenberg, Robert Stolorow, Frank Lachmann, Beatrice Beebe, and Morton and Estelle Shane, have extended his ideas, and others have branched into different directions that have led to refinements and modifications of his views on development and the nature of treatment.
Object relations theory and self psychology are holistic frameworks that are consistent with the humanistic stance, values, and person-environmental focus of the social work profession and fit well with the existing body of clinical social work theory and practice. They recognize the strengths and resilience of people and their push for growth as well as what goes wrong in the course of development.
The treatment approaches that stem from object relations theory and self psychology require a more human therapeutic environment and are optimistic about the reparative and facilitating role of the treatment relationship. Object relations and self psychological concepts apply to a broad range of problems, including life crises and transitions, the effects of physical and sexual abuse and other types of trauma, emotional disorders, substance abuse, physical illness, disability, loss of loved ones, violence, parenting and family problems, and work issues.
They have implications not only for individual long-term treatment but also for crisis and short-term intervention and work with couples, families, and groups. Along with Freudian drive theory and ego psychology, object relations theory and self psychology comprise the contemporary psychodynamic base of social work practice. Because of their divergent elements and emphases, no simple theoretical integration of these four frameworks is possible at present Phillips, ; Pine, Yet, it is likely that each formulation has some value and no one particular perspective constitutes the only truth about human behavior.
Consequently, it is important for practitioners to be competent in their understanding and use of diverse theoretical formulations and treatment models so that they can utilize them differentially depending on the needs of a given client.
This eclecticism is necessary because it is likely that clients have difficulties at multiple and different levels, that some aspects of their problems may be more prominent at one time than another, and that some of their problems may be more readily explained and worked with from one framework than another. The need for flexibility in the use of a particular approach may result in confusion and stress for the practitioner because it is difficult to decide when to do what to whom.
There are numerous reasons for my choosing to write about object relations theory and self psychology despite my having been associated with ego psychology for over fifteen years.
The book received its impetus from my long-standing interest in demonstrating the applicability of the major concepts and treatment principles of contemporary psychodynamic theory to social work practice. In the years following the publication of the first edition of Ego Psychology and Social Work Practice Goldstein, , which became a widely used social work text and resource, object relations theory and self psychology gained popularity in the social work and therapeutic community.
The second edition Goldstein, a commented on new directions in personality theory but it was beyond its scope to consider these fully. In most instances, these are geared to more advanced clinicians engaged in psychotherapeutic work. Despite their value, there is a need for a basic social work text that describes the main concepts and treatment principles of object relations theory and self psychology and shows their application to a broad range of problems encountered by social work practitioners.
A second reason for undertaking the task of writing this book arises from my own interest in and use of object relations theory and self psychology in my work with clients and supervisees. Employing these frameworks has expanded my ability to understand and relate to a wide range of clients and has produced fundamental changes in the ways in which I listen, what I observe, where I focus, and how I use myself in the treatment process.
I cannot imagine working without drawing on these perspectives and believe that a knowledge of these frameworks will help other social work practitioners. A third motivation for writing this book stems from concerns about the current state of education for direct practice. In contrast to earlier times, currently there is little, if any, curriculum space allocated to the teaching of psychodynamic theories. Consequently, students graduate without acquiring even basic understanding of this body of thought.
Object relations theory in psychoanalytic psychology is the process of developing a psyche in relation to others in the childhood environment. It designates theories or aspects of theories that are concerned with the exploration of relationships between real and external people as well as internal images and the relations found in them. While object relations theory is based on psychodynamic theory , it modified it so that the role of biological drives in the formation of adult personality received less emphasis. For example, an adult who experienced neglect or abuse in infancy would expect similar behavior from others who remind them of the neglectful or abusive parent from their past. These images of people and events turn into objects in the unconscious that the "self" carries into adulthood, and they are used by the unconscious to predict people's behavior in their social relationships and interactions.
Victor Daniels' Website in. The Psychology Department at. This school of psychology includes. Object relations theory is an offshoot of psychoanalytic theory that emphasizes interpersonal relations, primarily in the family and especially between mother and child. Object relations theorists are interested in inner images of the self and other and how they manifest themselves in interpersonal situations. Kohut's "self psychology" is an offshoot of object relations.
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I was shown quite a long list of verses which were composed by some young men who had been detected in an attempt to escape, who avenged themselves by singing them. I pumped my fellow-prisoner as dry as I could, for fear I should never see him again; but at length he showed me which was my bed, and left me to blow out the lamp. It was like travelling into a far country, such as I had never expected to behold, to lie there for one night. It seemed to me that I never had heard the town-clock strike before, nor the evening sounds of the village; for we slept with the windows open, which were inside the grating. It was a goddess, radiant, that bended its form with an imperious gesture to him. Though it was past ten o'clock at night, the sky still clung to and retained some lingering skirts of light from the departed day; and the sullen heats of the torrid afternoon broke up and rolled away at the dispersing touch of the cool fingers of the short midsummer night. Mole lay stretched on the bank, still panting from the stress of the fierce day that had been cloudless from dawn to late sunset, and waited for his friend to return.
By Eda Goldstein. Writing this book has provided me with the opportunity to integrate different phases of my education, training, and professional life. In my undergraduate days, the University of Chicago introduced me to a vast body of knowledge and imbued me with the importance of critical thinking. I began to recognize that the search for absolute truth is elusive and to appreciate the value of remaining open to new knowledge rather than of being wedded to one way of viewing people and the world. Their spirits linger on.
Танкадо ухватился за это предложение. Через три года он ушел из Ай-би-эм, поселился в Нью-Йорке и начал писать программы. Его подхватила новая волна увлечения криптографией. Он писал алгоритмы и зарабатывал неплохие деньги. Как и большинство талантливых программистов, Танкада сделался объектом настойчивого внимания со стороны АНБ.
Object Relations Theory and Self Psychology in Social Work Practice: A Review. Eda Goldstein, a long-time clinical practitioner and faculty member at the New.Reply
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