File Name: primary and secondary sources of literature review .zip
Click image to enlarge.
Different types of publications have different characteristics. Primary Literature Primary sources means original studies, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies. They are authored by researchers, contains original research data, and are usually published in a peer-reviewed journal. Primary literature may also include conference papers, pre-prints, or preliminary reports. Also called empirical research.
Both primary and secondary sources are useful and can help you learn about the past. In the strictest definition, primary sources are usually considered to be items like personal letters, diaries, records or other documents created during the period under study.
But primary sources can also include photographs, jewelry, works of art, architecture, literature, music, clothing, and other artifacts. In a broader definition, primary sources can also be considered materials that provide first-hand accounts of the events, practices, or conditions you are researching. In general, these are documents that were created by the witnesses or first recorders of these events at about the time they occurred, and include diaries, letters, reports, photographs, creative works, financial records, memos, and newspaper articles to name just a few types.
Primary sources might also include first-hand accounts that were documented later, such as autobiographies, memoirs, and oral histories. They usually interpret those events through the lens of the time period in which they are written. New discoveries are made and attitudes change over time causing understandings of past events to change. Facts may remain consistent, but interpretations change, sometimes drastically. Sources that have been published very recently will reflect the current theories and understanding of the past.
If you use a secondary source that was published decades ago, it is important to know what subsequent scholars have written on the topic and what criticism they have made about the earlier work or its approach to the topic. NOTE: In the strictest sense, secondary sources are sometimes considered to be anything that refers to a primary source, such as a review of an artwork. But for our purposes in the Modern Art History course, we will use the broader definitions above to classify material as primary.
Vincent van Gogh wrote many letters to his brother, Theo, and these letters are also primary sources but you would have to go to an archive to read the ACTUAL letters. At the archive you would wear special protective gloves so the oils from your hands would not harm the fragile paper and the letters would be brought to you in special containers.
You would read them in an archival room where the temperature and humidity were controlled. You might be allowed to photocopy them.
In that case, you would have to transcribe the contents by hand. The advantage of having this kind of access to a primary source is that you actually handle the original material.
You would be using the original primary source. Some archives are digitizing their collections and making them freely available on the web. For instance, the Van Gogh Museum has created the a web site for their Van Gogh Letters with original text, translations, facsimiles and indexes.
Most archives, though, cannot publish their primary source materials in such a robust and extensive manner. Luckily, there are other ways to access the primary source information without going to the archive. Primary source information can be copied and made available in other publications.
Letters, diaries, journals, newspapers, historical documents of all kinds have been reproduced and published in books, articles, journals, magazines, anthologies, and encyclopedias. Additionally, these reproductions can be in academic databases as well as educational and commercial websites. One of the easiest ways to access primary source material without going to an archive is to use an anthology which is a collection of writings or articles.
Scholars have amassed anthologies of selected primary source material and written additional commentary to help the reader understand the meaning and context of the primary source material.
Generally the anthology will have a specific focus like renaissance writings on art making, 19th century art criticism of a specific individual. For example, there are books with the published letters of Vincent van Gogh to his brother, Theo, along with information about the artist, his life, his work, the conditions under which he worked and the general content of the letters.
A scholar has written the supporting material and that material is considered a secondary source. It was written later than the primary source, it comments or explains or critiques the primary source.
Scholars writing about historical events, people, objects, or ideas produce secondary sources because they help explain new or different positions and ideas about primary sources.
These secondary sources generally scholarly books, including textbooks, articles, encyclopedias, and anthologies. The Museum of Modern Art's page for Starry Night contains a mixture of primary sources - a reproduction of the the painting and quotes from Van Gogh's letters - and secondary sources - the gallery wall text, excerpt from a MoMA publication, and a podcast about the painting.
In Introduction to Visual Culture , you learned how to evaluate written sources based on content. Now you know the difference between sources that are scholarly, professional, substantive news, and popular. This semester you are going to learn how to evaluate sources based on when they were written and how they are accessed and whether they are primary or secondary and why.
Here are examples of the same content published in a popular magazine and reprinted in a scholarly anthology. For the purposes of the Modern Art History course, we will consider them primary. Greenberg's essay has been reprinted in Modern Arts Criticism , Vol.
Its citation for the Vogue article refers only to pages , omitting any reference to the images. In fact, this anthology includes a completely different illustration of Pollock's work.
You will be expected to understand and comment upon the context in which the content appeared. View OtisDID slideshow on primary and secondary sources. Skip to main content. Primary Sources Both primary and secondary sources are useful and can help you learn about the past.
When you go to the museum you are looking at the exact work that he made. Any other version of it that you see in visual culture photograph, slide, digital image, postcard, stationary is a reproduction. It can be a different size and the color may vary. You may get the general idea of the painting but it would not be the same experience as seeing the real work.
Sources can be evaluated by different criteria In Introduction to Visual Culture , you learned how to evaluate written sources based on content. Context is everything… Here are examples of the same content published in a popular magazine and reprinted in a scholarly anthology. Cover of Vogue. View on Vogue Archive. Vogue layout, pp. The first two pages consist of pictures of Pollock and his work Fashion spread before article.
Fashion spread after article. Modern Arts Criticism. Essay layout, pp. Hit enter to search or ESC to close. May We Suggest? Creative Commons Image by kevinzim. Creative Commons Image by mollycakes.
Public domain image.
Published on June 20, by Raimo Streefkerk. Revised on February 26, Primary sources provide raw information and first-hand evidence. Examples include interview transcripts, statistical data, and works of art. A primary source gives you direct access to the subject of your research.
Both primary and secondary sources are useful and can help you learn about the past. In the strictest definition, primary sources are usually considered to be items like personal letters, diaries, records or other documents created during the period under study. But primary sources can also include photographs, jewelry, works of art, architecture, literature, music, clothing, and other artifacts. In a broader definition, primary sources can also be considered materials that provide first-hand accounts of the events, practices, or conditions you are researching. In general, these are documents that were created by the witnesses or first recorders of these events at about the time they occurred, and include diaries, letters, reports, photographs, creative works, financial records, memos, and newspaper articles to name just a few types.
While this may sound odd, the best indicator that something is a primary source is if the author of the piece actually DID the work that led to the creation of the resource. In primary source documents, the person writing the piece actually did the research, or witnessed the event, or created something entirely new. These are some examples of primary sources:. Secondary sources evaluate or analyze what others have done or witnessed or created. The authors didn't go out and do it, they just analyzed it or wrote about it. These are some examples of secondary sources:.
These two books in the Kettering collection focus on literature reviews. Both are available for checkout. You can think of peer review as a "stamp of approval" from academic experts. When an article is published in a peer-reviewed journal, you can be certain that experts in the relevant field have read it and, independent of their own particular opinions, verified it meets a high standard of scholarship.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source also called an original source is an artifact , document, diary, manuscript , autobiography , recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study. It serves as an original source of information about the topic. Similar definitions can be used in library science , and other areas of scholarship, although different fields have somewhat different definitions.
Я прихожу сюда каждый вечер. Подними, говорю. Беккер терял терпение. А ведь он мог быть сейчас в Смоки-Маунтинс, со Сьюзан. Что он делает здесь, в Испании, зачем спорит с этим психованным подростком. Беккер резким движением взял парня под мышки, приподнял и с силой посадил на столик.
Меган сказала, что, если тереть глаза, будет только хуже. Он даже представить себе не может, насколько хуже. Не в силах сдержать нетерпение, Беккер попытался позвонить снова, но по-прежнему безрезультатно. Больше ждать он не мог: глаза горели огнем, нужно было промыть их водой. Стратмор подождет минуту-другую. Полуслепой, он направился в туалетную комнату. Смутные очертания тележки все еще виднелись у двери в мужской туалет, поэтому Беккер снова подошел к дамской комнате.
- Джабба уверяет, что вирус - единственное, что могло привести к столь долгой работе ТРАНСТЕКСТА. - Подожди минутку! - махнул он рукой, словно прося ее остановиться. - Стратмор сказал, что у них все в порядке.
Well completion and servicing perrin pdf internal audit manual for microfinance institutions pdfReply
Law and society lippman 2nd edition chapter 1 pdf google page why are you suitable for this job sample answer pdfReply
Research summaries reported in textbooks, magazines, and newspapers are considered secondary sources. They typically provide global.Reply
Most research uses both primary and secondary sources. They complement each other to help you build a convincing argument. Primary sources.Reply
Some government publications Secondary sources for the literature Medium level of detail.Reply