File Name: bjt as an amplifier and as a switch .zip
A transistor connected in the three modes illustrated in Figs. What is a Transistor? Describe the Transistor Action in Detail.
Transistors are one of the very important components used in electronic circuit constructions. These humble components can almost be found everywhere; from simple relay driver circuits to complex motherboard circuits, transistors prove their presence. In fact, your microcontrollers and microprocessors are nothing but a collection of a large number of transistors synthesized to perform a collective operation. But, the most basic oldest of the transistor is the BJT Transistor, hence in this article, we get into details of that, you can use the links to learn more about other power switches.
In this Transistor tutorial, we will learn about the working of a Transistor as a Switch. Switching and Amplification are the two areas of applications of Transistors and Transistor as a Switch is the basis for many digital circuits. As one of the significant semiconductor devices, transistor has found use in enormous electronic applications such as embedded systems, digital circuits and control systems.
In both digital and analog domains transistors are extensively used for different application usage like amplification, logic operations, switching and so on.
This article mainly concentrates and gives a brief explanation of transistor application as a switch. Almost in many of the applications these transistors are used for two basic functions such as switching and amplification. The name bipolar indicates that two types of charge carriers are involved in the working of a BJT.
These two charge carriers are holes and electrons where holes are positive charge carriers and electrons are negative charge carriers. The transistor has three regions, namely base, emitter and collector. The emitter is a heavily doped terminal and emits electrons into the base.
Base terminal is lightly doped and passes the emitter-injected electrons on to the collector. The collector terminal is intermediately doped and collects electrons from base. This collector is large as compared with other two regions so it dissipates more heat. These two transistors can be configured into different types like common emitter, common collector and common base configurations.
Depends on the biasing conditions like forward or reverse, transistors have three major modes of operation namely cutoff, active and saturation regions. In this mode transistor is generally used as a current amplifier. In active mode, two junctions are differently biased that means emitter-base junction is forward biased whereas collector-base junction is reverse biased.
In this mode current flows between emitter and collector and amount of current flow is proportional to the base current. Cutoff Mode In this mode, both collector base junction and emitter base junction are reverse biased.
This in turn not allows the current to flow from collector to emitter when the base-emitter voltage is low. In this mode device is completely switched off as the result the current flowing through the device is zero. Current flows freely from collector to emitter when the base-emitter voltage is high. In this mode device is fully switched ON. The below figure shows the output characteristics of a BJT Transistor. In the below figure cutoff region has the operating conditions as zero collector output current, zero base input current and maximum collector voltage.
Therefore, the transistor is completely in OFF condition. Similarly, in the saturation region, a transistor is biased in such a way that maximum base current is applied that results maximum collector current and minimum collector-emitter voltage.
This causes the depletion layer to become small and to allow maximum current flow through the transistor. Therefore, the transistor is fully in ON condition.
This type of switching application is used for controlling motors, lamp loads, solenoids, etc. A transistor is used for switching operation for opening or closing of a circuit. This type solid state switching offers significant reliability and lower cost as compared with conventional relays. Some of the applications use a power transistor as switching device, at that time it may necessary to use another signal level transistor to drive the high power transistor.
Based on the voltage applied at the base terminal of a transistor switching operation is performed. Therefore, the transistor acts as a short circuit.
Similarly, when no voltage or zero voltage is applied at the input, transistor operates in cutoff region and acts as an open circuit. In this type of switching connection, load here LED lamp is connected to the switching output with a reference point. At the base input a signal varying between 0 and 5V is given so we are going to see the output at the collector by varying the V i at two states that is 0 and 5V as shown in figure.
From the above calculations, the maximum or peak value of the collector current in the circuit is 7. And the correspond base current to which collector current flows is So, it is clear that when the base current is increased beyond the Consider the case when zero volt is applied at the input.
This causes the base current zero and as the emitter is grounded, emitter base junction is not forward biased. Therefore, the transistor is in OFF condition and the collector output voltage is equal to 5V.
Therefore the base current is greater than Thus the output at the collector becomes approximately zero. This type of switching is used for negative ground configurations. For the PNP transistor, the base terminal is always negatively biased with respect to the emitter. In this switching, base current flows when the base voltage is more negative. Simply a low voltage or more negative voltage makes transistor to short circuit otherwise it will be open circuited or high impedance state.
In this connection, load is connected to the transistor switching output with a reference point. When the transistor is turned ON, current flows from the source through transistor to the load and finally to the ground. Similar to the NPN transistor switch circuit, PNP circuit input is also base, but the emitter is connected to constant voltage and the collector is connected to ground through the load as shown in figure.
In this configuration base is always biased negatively with respect to the emitter by connecting the base at negative side and the emitter at the positive side of the input supply. Therefore, for the conduction of transistor emitter must be more positive with respect to both collector and base.
In other words base must be more negative with respect to the emitter. For calculating the base and collector currents following expressions are used. Consider the above example, that the load requires milli ampere current and the transistor has the beta value of Then the current required for the saturation of the transistor is. Therefore, when the base current is 1 mA, the transistor will be fully ON.
But practically 30 percent of more current is required for guaranteed saturation of transistor. So, in this example the base current required is 1. As discussed earlier that the transistor can be used as a switch. It is also possible to control the relay operation using a transistor.
With a small circuit arrangement of a transistor able to energise the coil of the relay so that the external load connected to it is controlled.
Have you got the clear idea of how a transistor can be used as a switch? We acknowledge that the furnished information clarifies the entire switching concept with relevant images and examples. Further any doubts, suggestions and comments on this post you can write below. Loved a lot…. More n more information given in this I have not understood when my teacher explained but I understood when I red it once tx for this info…… Too helpfull Very good explanation……??? O was really stuck on transistors for almost 2 months, studying class notes but got nothing.
Today I made it. Your email address will not be published. Comments Great tutorial. Thanks a lot. Very nice explaination. It can be better if you use animated ckt. Sir very Useful article and very good explanation thanks sir. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Aseeri and F. Aseeri , F. Ali Published Understanding the application of a bipolar Junction transistor or BJT as a switch requiers understanding the general working principles behind a transistor and the specific working principles behind a BJT. A transistor is essentially a semiconductor device with physical properties that make it ideal for amplifying or switching electric current and other signal.
A relatively small flow of electrons sent through the base of the transistor has the ability to exert control over a much larger flow of electrons through the collector. Suppose we had a lamp that we wanted to turn on and off with a switch. Such a circuit would be extremely simple, as in the figure below a. Remember that the controlled current through a transistor must go between collector and emitter. Since it is the current through the lamp that we want to control, we must position the collector and emitter of our transistor where the two contacts of the switch were. A PNP transistor could also have been chosen for the job.
TTL Inverter. Page 2. 11/30/ section 5_3 The BJT as an Amp and hampdenlodgethame.org. 2/2. Jim Stiles. The Univ. of Kansas. Dept. of EECS. Back in my.
Skip to main content. Search form Search. Hope you are doing well. The pinout from left to right is: Emitter, Base, Collector. As compared with 2N it shows forward gain at lower current.
Circuit components and devices—such as diodes, amplifiers, and BJTs—all have different specifications when manufactured by different companies. These specifications are listed on data sheets.
Photocurrent amplifier circuit using the transistor of photodiode. Figures 3 and 4 show photocurrent amplifiers using transistors. The circuit shown in Figure 7 detects the light input by differentiating the rising and falling edges of a pulse signal. To amplify a very small input In the published low-order Class-E circuit, a transistor. Download full-text PDF Read An amplifier circuit which uses a transistor otherwise transistors is known as a transistor amplifier.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. Transistors are one of the basic building blocks of modern electronics. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled output power can be higher than the controlling input power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. Austro-Hungarian physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld proposed the concept of a field-effect transistor in , but it was not possible to actually construct a working device at that time. The three shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement.
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