File Name: civil wars in africa roots and resolution .zip
Sierra Leone. The resulting civil war lasted 11 years, enveloped the country, and left over 50, dead. During the first year of the war, the RUF took control of large swathes of territory in eastern and southern Sierra Leone, which were rich in alluvial diamonds. Under UN pressure, the government terminated its contract with EO before the accord could be implemented, and hostilities recommenced. The new government, led by Johnny Paul Koroma , declared the war over.
By engaging the colonial factor in African conflicts, this article seeks to understand the ineffectiveness of efforts at conflict management in overcoming the disasters that brought the conflicts to the African continent. It claims that conflict in Africa does not always stem primarily from crises of national governance and the failure of governmental institutions in African countries to mediate conflict, and revisits the colonial factor as the root of many conflicts in Africa. The article reconsiders the conflict management and conflict resolution debate and indicts former colonial powers and powerful organisations for maintaining colonial-style approaches to African conflicts at the expense of a desire to address the fundamental issues that divide the parties to the different conflicts. I am sure that none of you would want to rest content with the superficial kind of social analysis that deals mainly with effects and does not grapple with underlying causes Martin Luther King Jr The conflict resolution community seems to pursue conflict resolution efforts in Africa from a variety of purposes and interests and with policies that are often replete with ambiguities and contradictions. This situation may be the reason why many African conflicts may be silenced but remain largely unresolved.
In public discourse, Africa and the Middle East have become synonymous with ethnic and religious conflict, whereas Europe is known as a bastion of peace and stability. Our findings indicate that the Middle East and North Africa are not as susceptible to the conflicts previously mentioned. We instead propose a more complex view of conflict, where ethnic and religious conflict occur in most regions and factors such as the Cold War in Europe and the existence of holy sites in the Middle East must be taken into account when considering regional conflict. An understanding of regional conflicts, including their causes and legacies, is necessary for cultural, historical, and political literacy. In spite of globalization and the increasing reach of conflict, the majority of wars are fought between states that share borders and are a part of the same geopolitical region. Given that every region contains different ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups, as well as various resource factors that could potentially act as flashpoints for conflict within the region, why is it that some regions have become bywords for regional and ethnic conflict, while others have become bywords for regional peace?
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While violent conflicts are declining in the sub-region, recent insurgencies in the Sahel region affecting the West African countries of Mali, Niger and Mauritania and low intensity conflicts surging within notably stable countries such as Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal sends alarming signals of the possible re-surfacing of internal and regional violent conflicts. These conflicts are often hinged on several factors including poverty, human rights violations, bad governance and corruption, ethnic marginalization and small arms proliferation. Although many actors including the ECOWAS, civil society and international community have been making efforts, conflicts continue to persist in the sub-region and their resolution is often protracted. The transformation from inter-state to intra-state conflict from the latter part of the 20 th Century in West Africa brought a number of its economies to near collapse.
A distinction must be drawn between inter-state and intra-state conflicts, although recognizing that the two could be mutually reinforcing. The former were more prevalent in the immediate post-independence period, reflecting many border disputes and the politics of the Cold War. In the more recent years, however, Africa has witnessed a number of violent intra-state conflicts which have resulted in the diversion of a significant portion of resources, including official development assistance, away from development to emergency, and has been a major impediment to development. While ongoing conflicts must be addressed, resources should also be devoted at the same time towards tackling the root causes of conflicts and taking preventive actions.
A civil war , also known as an intrastate war in polemology ,  is a war between organized groups within the same state or country. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or to change government policies. Most modern civil wars involve intervention by outside powers. According to Patrick M.
Я обязан об этом доложить, - сказал он вслух. В подобной ситуации надо известить только одного человека - старшего администратора систем безопасности АНБ, одышливого, весящего четыреста фунтов компьютерного гуру, придумавшего систему фильтров Сквозь строй.
Я ухожу, но директору эти цифры нужны к его возвращению из Южной Америки. То есть к понедельнику, с самого утра. - Она бросила пачку компьютерных распечаток ему на стол. - Я что, бухгалтер. - Нет, милый, ты директорский автопилот. Надеюсь, не забыл.
- Я видела твою электронную почту. Хейл замер, потом повернул Сьюзан лицом к. - Ты вскрыла мою электронную почту. - А ты отключил моего Следопыта. Хейл почувствовал, как кровь ударила ему в голову. Он был уверен, что спрятал все следы, и не имел ни малейшего понятия о том, что Сьюзан были известны его действия.
Request PDF | On Jan 1, , Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos published Civil Wars in Africa: Roots and Resolution by Taisier M. Ali;.Reply