File Name: project on energy resources and conservation .zip
It inevitably generates emissions and other untoward environmental effects across the entire lifecycle of each and every product. Moreover, growing resource scarcity and fluctuating raw materials prices are provoking severe economic disruption and social unrest. The high standard of living that we enjoy here in Germany depends entirely on the availability of natural resources. Apart from abiotic and biotic raw materials, we use water, soil, air, biodiversity and land as habitats and for recreational purposes; and for energy we use wind power, solar power and tidal flows.
Conventional energy source based on coal, gas, and oil are very much helpful for the improvement in the economy of a country, but on the other hand, some bad impacts of these resources in the environment have bound us to use these resources within some limit and turned our thinking toward the renewable energy resources.
The social, environmental, and economical problems can be omitted by use of renewable energy sources, because these resources are considered as environment-friendly, having no or little emission of exhaust and poisonous gases like carbon dioxide, carbon monooxide, sulfur dioxide, etc.
Renewable energy is going to be an important source for power generation in near future, because we can use these resources again and again to produce useful energy. Wind power generation is considered as having lowest water consumption, lowest relative greenhouse gas emission, and most favorable social impacts. It is considered as one of the most sustainable renewable energy sources, followed by hydropower, photovoltaic, and then geothermal.
As these resources are considered as clean energy resources, they can be helpful for the mitigation of greenhouse effect and global warming effect. Local employment, better health, job opportunities, job creation, consumer choice, improvement of life standard, social bonds creation, income development, demographic impacts, social bonds creation, and community development can be achieved by the proper usage of renewable energy system.
Along with the outstanding advantages of these resources, some shortcomings also exist such as the variation of output due to seasonal change, which is the common thing for wind and hydroelectric power plant; hence, special design and consideration are required, which are fulfilled by the hardware and software due to the improvement in computer technology.
Renewable energy is going to be an important source for power generation in the near future, because we can use these resources again and again to produce useful energy.
The energy resources are normally classified as fossil resources, renewable, and nuclear energy resources. Different renewable energy resources, like hydropower, wind, solar, biomass, ocean energy, biofuel, geothermal, etc. The world is going to turn into a global village due to more requirement of energy due to fast growing population, which leads to the use the fossil fuels like coal, gas, and oil to fulfill the energy requirement, which creates unsustainable situations and many problems like depletion of fossil fuels, environmental and geographical conflicts, greenhouse effect, global warming, and fluctuation in fuel prices.
Due to environment-friendly and less emission of gases from renewable energy, it is considered as sustainable energy; also supported for the society from each dimensions like economic, social and environmental. Along with the outstanding advantages of these resources, some shortcomings also exist like the variation of output due to seasonal change, which is the common thing for wind and hydroelectric power plant; hence, special design and consideration are required, which are fulfilled by the hardware and software due to the improvement in computer technology.
Main renewable energy sources with their usage form [ 2 ]. Global renewable energy scenario by [ 3 ]. The economy of Pakistan has been variable and unstable for a long time, but it started to grow somehow since s. Energy demand also increased, as the economy of the country increased.
To fulfill the energy demand, oil, natural gas, and coal are used, but due to limited resources, Pakistan is forced to import oil and gases from U. E and Saudi Arabia. The location of Pakistan is very good for getting benefit from the sun to generate power, and there are also some places suitable for wind power generation in Pakistan. However, the main problem to generate power is the funding. The energy overview of Pakistan is given in Figure 1.
The study focused on four major factors impacting REP: social, political, economic, and environmental. Currently, three-fourths of that demand is fulfilled by the fossil fuels. On the other hand, the more usage of these resources causes environment pollution and results in more greenhouse effect [ 5 ].
For the protection of environment, social development and economics benefits can be get by using renewable energy sources, because there is no requirement of fuel [ 6 ].
These resources avoid the fluctuations in prices and importing of fossil fuel. Wind energy has some effects like bird strike and noise etc. The hydroelectric power may develop slowly with respect to other resources, because a number of people have to leave their homes. But, this may be beneficial for the companies to improve flood control [ 7 ]. The increasing global warming effect can easily be prevented with the proper access of renewable energy and by improving the renewable energy technologies [ 8 ].
Renewable energy source will be the best option for minimizing pollution, increasing economy, energy security, and job opportunities; also, poverty will be reduced because mostly poor people rely on the natural resources [ 10 ]. Pakistan has abundant renewable energy resources and also shows the potential to overcome the energy demand gap, but it is inhibited by some factors like policy, institutional, regulatory, fiscal, social, economic, technical, industrial, and informational barriers [ 12 ].
Globally, around three billion people rely on solid fuel mostly fossil fuel, causing health concerns and diseases like pneumonia, chronic respiratory diseases, and lung cancer. Government of Pakistan should initiate, in short run, small dams in the northern area and, in long run, big dams and hydro power projects, and for domestic purposes, coal and hydel resources can be used in small scale [ 14 ].
With the proper and efficient use of energy, the culture will be developed [ 15 ]. With solar cell, electricity can be generated but in small amount, which would be useful as backup during load shedding time.
In Pakistan, big cities produce millions of tons of biomass, but lack of technologies to generate electric power from these wastes is one of the biggest barriers for the improvement in renewable energy resources in Pakistan. It can produce Finally, the study concluded that biogas energy system has low initial cost, low operating cost, and positive impact on household income.
Nuclear energy can be useful for the development in the long term to meet global increasing demand [ 18 ]. Decreased efficiencies of thermal plants, periodic changes in water flow, fuel availability, auxiliary consumption and transmission limitations are main cause that Maximum system capability is lower. The main cause of load shedding is the circular debt caused by government institutions, poor revenue collection, insufficient tariff, corruption, losses, theft of electric power, and dispute on tariff with FATA, AJK, and KESC and also due to ignorance of merit, appointments of noneligible employees on political basis, etc.
Circular debt can only be improved with the introduction of more and more renewable energy to the national gird [ 19 ]. Nonrenewable consumption increases the real GDP rapidly as compared to renewable energy consumption. Finally, it was concluded that renewable energy consumption along with nonrenewable energy consumption is the better solution for the GDP growth of the country [ 20 ]. It is found that economical, technical, reliability, availability of renewable energy resources, and financial risk are the important factors for selection and ranking of renewable energy technologies.
The study prioritizes the renewable energy resources as wind energy, biomass, solar photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. Further, wind energy and biomass were preferred for power generation in Pakistan [ 21 ], and energy review of Pakistan is shown in Figure 1. These resources also provide social benefits like improvement of health, according to choice of consumer, advancement in technologies, and opportunities for the work, but some basic considerations should be taken for the benefit of humans, for example, climate conditions, level of education and standard of living, and region whether urban or rural from agricultural point of view.
Social aspects are the basic considerations for the development of any country. The following social benefits can be achieved by renewable energy systems: local employment, better health, job opportunities, and consumer choice. The study concluded that the total emission reduction is exponentially increasing in different years after the installation of renewable energy projects in remote areas [ 23 ]. Social impacts of each resource with its magnitude are listed in Table 3.
Social impacts assessment for different renewable energy sources [ 7 ]. It was discovered that renewable energy projects provide benefits in economic point of view because they utilize local labor from rural areas, local material and business, local shareholders, and services of local banks.
This makes it easy for a few communities to invest money on any small business of their own choice [ 4 ]. Biofuel projects created large number of jobs; however, very low jobs were created by solar power plants, as the ratio of people working in different companies increase that will create more jobs for others by using the part of their economy for entertainment, leisure, restaurant, etc.
The consumers will be provided with electric power at a low cost as compared to that of conventional energy sources, and overall economy will be enhanced because there will be multiple options to generate power using different renewable energy sources present in that region [ 23 ]. Renewable energy projects have also contributed in improving environmental impacts such as reduction of carbon dioxide gas, awakening community about the climate change.
The study observed very small impacts on the people living in a particular area, tourism, cost of energy supply, and educational impacts. Significant impacts were observed in improvement of life standard, social bonds creation, and community development.
They also observed that the renewable energy projects are complex to install and are local environmental and condition sensitive. Their forecasting, execution, and planning require more consideration and knowledge as compared to other projects [ 4 ].
The two main aspects of environment are air and water pollution, normally created by the discharged water from houses, industries, and polluted rain, and discharge of used oils and liquids contains poisonous chemicals and heavy metals like mercury, lead, etc. Along with water pollution, natural resources can be maintained and greenhouse effect and air pollution can be mitigated by the proper usage of renewable energy sources [ 23 ] as shown in Table 4.
Carbon dioxide emission with the generation of electric power using different energy resources is given in Figure 2. Summary of environmental effects [ 24 ]. Various greenhouse gases in atmosphere is being increased by humankind by doing many economic activities.
The role of greenhouse gases and current situation are given in Table 5. Role of different substances in greenhouse effect [ 15 ]. Solar panels are usually installed at the roofs of the buildings that increase the job opportunities in the PV system fabrication and installation.
This increases the regional development and reduces the usage of energy from nonrenewable energy projects. It is very useful at the regions where there is no access of electricity. The major problem with solar system is the high investment and maintenance cost. Biomass energy projects have great contribution in the local job creation and the development of rural areas.
Such types of power plants have large opportunities of jobs in construction of plants, management, maintenance of plants, production, and preparation of biomass. Only the noise production and unpleasant smell are the negative impacts of these plants. Fuel cells have slow implementation because of their high cost of plant construction and energy generation. Their construction and operation create jobs in almost all technical activities.
In hydro power plants, the major sociopolitical problem is the shifting of the people from the areas where the plant is going to be constructed. These plants provide significant jobs for local community and also play an important role in the economic development of the community. The construction of tidal energy plants has no effect on humans, and they have better contribution in the local and official employment. These plants are very expensive and are not common. Wind energy projects do not have any emigration problem, and they create large number of job opportunities especially for engineers.
Geo thermal energy projects provide the following sociopolitical benefits: improvement in the education of local people, improvement in living standards, and improvement in the care of health issues [ 25 ]. When the solar panels are connected to the distribution system, the cost of safety equipment is reduced because their short circuit current is higher than the nominal value.
Biomass power plants have the same effects on the gird as do conventional plants. The integration of wind energy plants, tidal energy, and geothermal energy is complex [ 25 ]. Three case studies were made to investigate the socioeconomic benefits of renewable energy projects, and the three cases were solar, wind, and biofuel energy projects; empirical method was used to collect data.
The basic aim of study was to know the contribution of renewable energy projects to local sustainability, which includes social, economic, and environmental, and to identify the socioeconomic benefits of REPs through the concerned community.
It was done by doing survey of the communities. Eleven parameters were used including job creation, impacts on education, easy usage of energy, income development, demographic impacts, social bonds creation and community development, usage of native resources, and tourism. They concluded that the impacts of REPs on employment are positive, and indirect employment is high in comparison with the size of community, whereas direct employment is moderate [ 26 ].
One of the important assessing factors to generate power from renewable energy sources is the availability and their technical limitation. Each resource has some limitations; photovoltaic has limitation to generate power only because heat energy from sun can only be received during the day time, except cloudy season. Hydro-electric power plants are easy to start, stop, and operate within minutes; hence, they are considered as one of the highest available, reliable, and flexible renewable energy resources.
From efficiency point of view, hydroelectric is classified at the top of the list, and then wind energy, photovoltaic, and geothermal are lowest efficient renewable energy resources.
Energy conservation is the decision and practice of using less energy. Energy conservation and efficiency may be related, but they have distinct definitions in the energy world. Energy conservation involves using less energy by adjusting your behaviors and habits. Energy efficiency, on the other hand, involves using technology that requires less energy to perform the same function. So why is it important to conserve energy? While energy efficiency might cost you money up front before potentially saving you money down the road, energy conservation is something you can put into practice immediately, either at very little or no cost to you. Here are 10 energy conservation ideas you can get started with today.
To explore and optimally develop renewable energy resources in the State so as to meet the electricity demand in future and to save electrical energy through energy efficiency measures and Demand Side Management. Monitoring progress of Flag Ship Projects - establishing an effective mechanism. Electric mobility- Electric vehicles for official use. Non Availability of Net meter- Purchase of net meter by consumers themselves. Present Activities. The project proposals are divided in to three categories:. Pilot project - after ideation to evaluate potential, feasibility, performance - upto Rs.
Environmental Resources Pdf. Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment. Trophy hunting is currently the subject of intense debate globally, with moves at various levels to end or restrict it.
Metrics details. The primary objective for deploying renewable energy in India is to advance economic development, improve energy security, improve access to energy, and mitigate climate change. Sustainable development is possible by use of sustainable energy and by ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for citizens. The government has designed policies, programs, and a liberal environment to attract foreign investments to ramp up the country in the renewable energy market at a rapid rate.
As the demands of the workplace keep rising, many people respond by putting in ever longer hours, which inevitably leads to burnout that costs both the organization and the employee. Meanwhile, people take for granted what fuels their capacity to work—their energy. Increasing that capacity is the best way to get more done faster and better. Time is a finite resource, but energy is different. It has four wellsprings—the body, emotions, mind, and spirit—and in each, it can be systematically expanded and renewed. In this article, Schwartz, founder of the Energy Project, describes how to establish rituals that will build energy in the four key dimensions.
Conventional energy source based on coal, gas, and oil are very much helpful for the improvement in the economy of a country, but on the other hand, some bad impacts of these resources in the environment have bound us to use these resources within some limit and turned our thinking toward the renewable energy resources. The social, environmental, and economical problems can be omitted by use of renewable energy sources, because these resources are considered as environment-friendly, having no or little emission of exhaust and poisonous gases like carbon dioxide, carbon monooxide, sulfur dioxide, etc. Renewable energy is going to be an important source for power generation in near future, because we can use these resources again and again to produce useful energy.