File Name: 20 branches of psychology and their definition format.zip
Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior, according to the American Psychological Association. It is the study of the mind, how it works, and how it affects behavior. Psychologists and psychiatrists work together to help people with mental health conditions, but they are not quite the same. A psychologist treats a patient through psychotherapy, helping to relieve symptoms through behavioral change. The role of the psychiatrist, who is a medical doctor, focuses more on prescribing medication and other interventions to manage mental health conditions.
The work of a psychologist can range from counseling individuals with anxiety to advising companies on how to build better teams. Thought processes, emotions, memories, dreams, perceptions, and so on cannot be seen physically, like a skin rash or heart defect. A practicing psychologist will meet with patients, carry out assessments to find out what their concerns are and what is causing any difficulties, and recommend or provide treatment, for example, through counselling and psychotherapy.
Psychologists may have other roles, too. They may carry out studies to advise health authorities and other bodies on social and other strategies, assess children who find it difficult to learn in school, give workshops on how to prevent bullying, work with recruitment teams in companies, and much more. There are different types of psychology that serve different purposes.
There is no fixed way of classifying them, but here are some common types. Clinical psychology integrates science, theory, and practice in order to understand, predict and relieve problems with adjustment, disability, and discomfort. It promotes adaption, adjustment, and personal development. Psychological assessment and psychotherapy are central to the practice of clinical psychology, but clinical psychologists are often also involved in research, training, forensic testimony, and other areas.
Cognitive psychology investigates internal mental processes, such as problem solving, memory, learning, and language. It looks at how people think, perceive, communicate, remember, and learn. It is closely related to neuroscience , philosophy, and linguistics. Practical applications include how to improve memory, increase the accuracy of decision-making, or how to set up educational programs to boost learning.
This is the scientific study of systematic psychological changes that a person experiences over the life span, often referred to as human development. Factors include motor skills, problem solving, moral understanding, acquiring language, emotions, personality, self-concept, and identity formation.
Evolutionary psychology looks at how human behavior, for example language, has been affected by psychological adjustments during evolution. An evolutionary psychologist believes that many human psychological traits are adaptive in that they have enabled us to survive over thousands of years.
A forensic psychologist practices psychology as a science within the criminal justice system and civil courts. It involves assessing the psychological factors that might influence a case or behavior and presenting the findings in court. A physician often looks first at the biological causes of a disease, but a health psychologist will focus on the whole person and what influences their health status. This may include their socioeconomic status, education, and background, and behaviors that may have an impact on the disease, such as compliance with instructions and medication.
Neuropsychology looks at the structure and function of the brain in relation to behaviors and psychological processes. A neuropsychology may be involved if a condition involves lesions in the brain, and assessments that involve recording electrical activity in the brain.
A neuropsychological evaluation is used to determine whether a person is likely to experience behavioral problems following suspected or diagnosed brain injury, such as a stroke. The results can enable a doctor to provide treatment that may help the individual achieve possible improvements in cognitive damage that has occurred. Occupational or organizational psychologists are involved in assessing and making recommendations about the performance of people at work and in training.
They help companies to find more effective ways to function, and to understand how people and groups behave at work. This information can help improve effectiveness, efficiency, job satisfaction, and employee retention. Social psychology uses scientific methods to understand how social influences impact human behavior. It seeks to explain how feelings, behavior, and thoughts are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other people.
A social psychologist looks at group behavior, social perception, non-verbal behavior, conformity, aggression, prejudice, and leadership. Social perception and social interaction are seen as key to understanding social behavior.
Other branches include military, consumer, educational, cross-cultural, and environmental psychology. The number of branches continues to grow. In a philosophical context, psychology was around thousands of years ago in ancient Greece, Egypt, India, Persia, and China. Avicenna, the famous Muslim doctor, born in AD, studied and treated epilepsy , nightmares, and poor memory. The first hospitals treating psychiatric conditions were said to have been set up by Islamic doctors in medieval times.
In , Philippe Pinel released the first patients with mental health problems from confinement in a move that signalled a move toward more humane treatment. In , Wilhelm Wundt, Germany, founded psychology as an independent experimental field of study. He set up the first laboratory that carried out psychological research exclusively at Leipzig University.
Wundt is known today as the father of psychology. It was discussed by psychologists worldwide for many decades. In the same year, New York State passed the State Care Act, in which people with mental health problems were to leave poor houses and enter the hospital for treatment. Stanley Hall. Hermann Abbingaus, who lived from , and worked at the University of Berlin, was the first psychologist to study memory extensively.
The Austrian Sigmund Freud, who lived from to , introduced the field of psychoanalysis, a type of psychotherapy. He used interpretive methods, introspection, and clinical observations to gain understanding of the mind. He focused on resolving unconscious conflict, mental distress, and psychopathology.
The debate between the functionalists and structuralists led to a rapid growth in interest in psychology in the United States and elsewhere, and the establishment of the first psychology laboratory in the U. In an American psychologist, John B. Watson, founded a new movement that changed the focus of psychology. Behavior, he argued, is not the result of internal mental processes, but the result of how we respond to the environment. Rather than being victims of the environment or the unconscious, they proposed that humans are innately good and that our own mental processes played an active role in our behavior.
The humanist movement puts high value on the emotions, free will, and a subjective view of experience. Cognitive theorists believe that we take in information from our environment through our senses and then process the data mentally by organizing it, manipulating it, remembering it, and relating it to information we have already stored.
Cognitive theory is applied to language, memory, learning, perceptual systems, mental disorders, and dreams. Nowadays, psychologists study all these approaches and choose what appears to be best from each approach for a particular situation. In addition, each state has requirements for licensure. Read the article in Spanish. Many adults have ADHD and do not know it. Without treatment, however, ADHD in adults can affect relationships, work, and more.
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Medically reviewed by Timothy J. Legg, Ph. What is psychology? Branches of psychology History How do I become a psychologist? Fast facts about psychology Psychology is the study of behavior and the mind. There are different types of psychology, such as cognitive, forensic, social, and developmental psychology. A person with a condition that affects their mental health may benefit from assessment and treatment with a psychologist.
A psychologist may offer treatment that focuses on behavioral adaptations. A psychiatrist is a medical doctor who is more likely to focus on medical management of mental health issues.
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Psychology is the science of behavior, both in humans and nonhuman animals. The subject is very broad, with many sub-fields. Psychologists can work in many different research areas, and pursue a variety of careers. Provide counseling services to individuals, groups and organizations schools, hospitals to help people cope with problems. Gather data on how humans and animals respond to their environment through research that involves manipulating variables in a laboratory setting. Examine how various factors affect health and illness, as well as effective ways to control pain or change habits. Apply psychological research and principles to the workplace to improve productivity and quality of work life.
Social Psychology Principles. Why do you want to work here? Why do you feel this site would be a good fit with your interests and background? Vandenbos Editor Call Number: In general knowledge we have two categories.
View hampdenlodgethame.org from AA + Different Fields of Psychology and their Definition (Major Branches) Different Fields/Branches of.
Apply Now. A degree in psychology not only opens the door to the mind, but it can also open the door to a successful, very rewarding career. Graduates who have studied psychology can build significant careers in areas such as community and social development, human resources and employee wellness and counselling and mental health services, where having a grounded knowledge of psychology, an applied skill set and well developed research and writing skills, is valued. This would need to be followed by an Honours and a professional Masters completion in order to be eligible to register with the Health Professions Council of South Africa HPCSA in one of nine key professional categories.
Psychology Notes Pdf. Clinical Psychology B. Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. A list of the best selling books of all time, fiction and nonfiction best sellers. Psy - D.
Psychology studies and explains the behaviour of entire living organisms. The term behaviour includes the cognitive, Conative and affective, conscious, subconscious or unconscious, implicit or explicit. It also includes the behaviour of people from infancy to old age, the normal as well as abnormal. It is very difficult to understand all these aspects of behaviour in one sphere.
Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior, according to the American Psychological Association. It is the study of the mind, how it works, and how it affects behavior. Psychologists and psychiatrists work together to help people with mental health conditions, but they are not quite the same. A psychologist treats a patient through psychotherapy, helping to relieve symptoms through behavioral change.
Psychological Disorders. Within psychology, the debate often boils down to a bar fight between experimental and clinical psychologists, with the former assuming scientific status while denying it to the latter e. Cognitive Psychology: History Since the beginning of experimental psychology in the nineteenth century, there had been interest in the study of higher mental processes. Size: 16 KB. Ames, IA