File Name: four theories of attitude formation and change .zip
An attitude is an enduring set of emotions or beliefs about a particular object, person, organization, issue or event. As we experience the world, our thoughts and emotions coalesce into attitudes, and these then affect our behavior. For instance, if I am visiting a store for the first time, I may have no preconceptions about it. Having experienced it good layout, helpful staff , purchased something many choices, reasonable price and felt good about my purchases good quality, cool brands , next time I may have a positive attitude towards it. Next time I visit, I anticipate a similar outcome, looking for positive reinforcement of that attitude. Particularly during this electoral season there might be hot-button issues e. But the fact is, most attitudes are hard to voice — what is your attitude to Honda vs Subaru?
Read this article to learn about the theories of Attitude are : 1. Cognitive-Consistency Theories 2. Functional Theories 3. Social Judgment Theories! Though there is a frequent discontinuity between various groupings because related approaches have focused on different sets of phenomena but still such classification is valid from practical point of view. Research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behaviour.
According to cognitive dissonance theory, there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions i. When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors dissonance , something must change to eliminate the dissonance. In the case of a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior, it is most likely that the attitude will change to accommodate the behavior. Two factors affect the strength of the dissonance: the number of dissonant beliefs, and the importance attached to each belief. There are three ways to eliminate dissonance: 1 reduce the importance of the dissonant beliefs, 2 add more consonant beliefs that outweigh the dissonant beliefs, or 3 change the dissonant beliefs so that they are no longer inconsistent. Dissonance occurs most often in situations where an individual must choose between two incompatible beliefs or actions.
People often evaluate others using fragmentary but meaningful personal information in recent days through social media. It is not clear that whether this process is implicit or explicit and what kind of information is more important in such process. We examined the effects of several meaningful fragmentary information onattitude. Thirty three KAIST students were provided four fragmentary information about four virtual people that are meaningful in evaluating people and frequently seen in real life situations, and were asked to imagine that person during four follow-up sessions. Explicit and Implicit attitudes were measured using Likert scale and Implicit Association Test respectively. Also, eye tracking was done to find out the most important information. Strong explicit attitudes, were formed toward both men and women, and weak but significant implicit attitudes, were generated toward men only.
(see Persuasion Theories). Overload. Research on 'cognitive busyness'suggests that individuals. working under cognitive load are.
For this discussion, attitude theories have been organized into four categories see The study of attitudes has been approached with varying emphases and methods during most of this century. Prior to World War II, the emphasis was on definition issues and attitude measurement.
In psychology, an attitude refers to a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors toward a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behavior. While attitudes are enduring, they can also change.
This paper introduces Polias, a new agent-based model of attitude dynamics, rooted in sociopsychological theories. Attitude is a central concept to study human behavior. As many constructs in psychology, there are several ways to define it. Thus, an attitude is an evaluative judgment, and it has a valence to express a positive in favor , neutral or negative disfavor predisposition toward this object.
Тот, конечно, был мастером своего дела, но наемник остается наемником. Можно ли ему доверять. А не заберет ли он ключ. Фонтейну нужно было какое-то прикрытие - на всякий случай, - и он принял необходимые меры. ГЛАВА 113 - Ни в коем случае! - крикнул мужчина с короткой стрижкой, глядя в камеру. - У нас приказ.
Дэвид. - Это Стратмор, - прозвучал знакомый голос. Сьюзан плюхнулась обратно в ванну. - Ох! - Она не могла скрыть разочарование. - Здравствуйте, шеф.
Он смотрел на девушку, понимая, что его поиски подошли к концу. Она вымыла голову и переоделась - быть может, считая, что так легче будет продать кольцо, - но в Нью-Йорк не улетела. Беккер с трудом сдерживал волнение.