File Name: vrooms expectancy theory advantages and disadvantages .zip
First developed by Yale School of Management professor Victor Vroom in , the expectancy theory of motivation attempts to explain what keeps employees working. Its underlying principle is that employees perform in work situations because they expect to receive a direct reward, a factor called expectancy. Their performance is tied to both the degree to which they think they'll be rewarded, which is a factor called instrumentality, and the degree to which they want the reward, which is called valance. Understanding this theory is key in small businesses, many of which frequently run lean and, as such, could greatly benefit from having a well-motivated and highly productive workforce. The model underlying the expectancy theory states that Motivation is equal to Expectancy multiplied by Instrumentality multiplied by Valance. Under the theory, if any of the factors are zero, the employee will be unmotivated.
Vroom's expectancy theory separates effort, performance and outcomes, while Maslow and Herzberg focus on the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them. Vroom's expectancy theory assumes that behaviour results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximise pleasure and to minimise pain. Expectancy is the idea that increasing the amount of effort will increase performance if I work harder then I will perform better. Instrumentality is the idea that i f you perform better, then the outcome will be achieved If I perform well, there I will achieve the desired outcome. Valence is the perceived value the employee puts on the outcome. For the valence to be positive, the person must prefer attaining the outcome than not attaining it.
The Expectancy Theory of Motivation is best described as a process theory. With research pioneered by Edward C. Tolman and continued by Victor H. Vroom, Expectancy Theory provides an explanation of why individuals choose one behavioral option over others. The idea with this theory is that people are motivated to do something because they think their actions will lead to their desired outcome Redmond,
Victor H. Vroom, Professor Emeritus of Management at Yale University, developed a theory in about management and the drivers behind employee behavior as it pertains to motivation. Called expectancy theory, his work focused on explaining choices individuals made at work concerning their ability, leadership and the effectiveness of their decision making. Vroom has several published works on management and organizational behavior that have been widely considered breakthroughs in this field. Vroom's expectancy theory of motivation concerns the process of individuals choosing one way to behave over another.
Together with Edward Lawler and Lyman Porter, Victor Vroom suggested that the relationship between people's behavior at work and their goals was not as simple as was first imagined by other scientists. Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individuals factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. The theory suggests that although individuals may have different sets of goals, they can be motivated if they believe that:. Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes [rewards]. The depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic [money, promotion, time-off, benefits] or intrinsic [satisfaction] rewards.
One of the advantages of expectancy theory, if applied well, is that employees willingly and happily participate in work projects because management has planned.
Expectancy model was developed by Victor Vroom in The theory is based on the simple equation :. As shown in the figure above the model is built around the concepts of valence, instrumentality and expectancy.
The Expectancy Theory of Motivation attempts to explain why people behave the way they do. Do you show up at the office early, work hard, and stay late. Why do you behave this way?
Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them, Vroom's expectancy theory separates effort which arises from motivation , performance, and outcomes. Vroom's expectancy theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain. Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He stated that effort, performance and motivation are linked in a person's motivation. He uses the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence to account for this. Expectancy is the belief that increased effort will lead to increased performance i. This is affected by such things as:.