File Name: insects as food and feed from production to consumption .zip
This review summarizes the current trends related to insect as food resources among consumers, industry, and academia. In Western societies, edible insects have a greater potential as animal feed than as human food because of cultural biases associated with harmful insects, although the abundant characteristics of edible insects should benefit human health.
Nevertheless, many countries in Asia, Oceania, Africa, and Latin America utilize insects as a major protein source. Using insects can potentially solve problems related to the conventional food-supply chain, including global water, land, and energy deficits. Academic, industry, and government-led efforts have attempted to reduce negative perceptions of insects through developing palatable processing methods, as well as providing descriptions of health benefits and explaining the necessity of reducing reliance on other food sources.
Our overview reveals that entomophagy is experiencing a steady increase worldwide, despite its unfamiliarity to the consumers influenced by Western eating habits. Several projections have suggested that world population will reach over 9 billion by Grafton et al. This increase in population requires approximately double the current food production Belluco et al.
Alarmingly, global warming is gradually decreasing the areas used for food production worldwide Dobermann et al. The climate change and the environmental destruction from industrial development also negatively affect the food productivity van Huis and Oonincx, In light of worsening resource shortage, several foods have been proposed as alternatives, with insects receiving the most attention Patel et al.
Insects are institutionally accepted as a food in many regions and historically consumed Murefu et al. However, the rapid increase in food production through technological advancement has largely eliminated insects from our diets Gao et al.
The reappearance of insects as a viable food group can be attributed to their nutritional, environmental, and economic value Nongonierma and FitzGerald, The increased scrutiny of edible insects is part of a multifaceted strategies for achieving global food security van Huis, In general, insects have high protein content and excellent production efficiency compared with other conventional food groups Kohler et al.
This characteristic is particularly valuable given that future protein consumption is expected to increase, but food supply declines Gao et al. Currently, Europe and the United States have the fastest growing edible-insect industry, where a trend is associated with high meat intake Mlcek et al.
Moreover, it is recognized that a steady increase in the global market size of the insect industry, with applications reaching beyond food into material and drug development van Thielen et al. Despite the numerous practical advantages, many barriers remain in insect-food development because the concept of insect foods is not similar with conventional Western eating habit Murefu et al.
Currently, insect foods are in a transitional stage, and a promising new technique involves developing new food products via combining protein-processing technology with insects Kohler et al. This review aims to provide a much needed overview of current research on insect-food development.
As we will demonstrate, the insect industry is on track to become a successful protein resource that will lead the global market. For hundreds of years, native cultures in Asia, South America, Africa, and Europe include the consumption of various species of insects Dobermann et al.
Approximately 2, insect species are consumed in at least countries Yen, A survey of markets in Bangkok, Thailand, for instance, identified insect species being sold for food Yhoung-aree, The most commonly eaten insects are beetles, caterpillars, bees, ants, crickets, grasshoppers, and locusts Raheem et al.
In Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Nigeria, edible insects are commonly available in school cafeterias and open markets, forming a profitable business Mutungi et al. Some insects are appreciated for their organoleptic characteristics and consumed in high-class restaurants DeFoliart, An interest in edible insects has increased rapidly because the Food and Agriculture Organization FAO has begun promoting insects as viable dietary options for humans van Huis et al.
Globally, the edible-insect market is expected to exceed USD million by Han et al. Since , the Korean edible-insect market especially for human consumption has made major progress with government support and successful research endeavors. However, lingering negative perceptions of insects hamper global market expansion and limit insects as a mainstream dining option, which may be related to the fact that people are skeptical to novel foods due to general neophobic tendencies Dobermann et al.
Thus, inexperienced consumers perceive insects as a source of fear or disgust, have strong rejection of insects as a normal food in their diet, and totally neglect their high nutritive value van Huis, Overcoming such intrinsic attitudes are one of the main challenges facing the edible-insect industry Yen, Fortunately, the positive social perception of novel foods does lead to its consumption Yen, , as consumer attitudes are driven multiple factors e.
Thus, initiatives promoting edible insects should emphasize their practical value, which can create consumer demand Sun-Waterhouse et al. Governments and NGOs can provide the information about benefits related to nutrition and environmental sustainability Ruby et al. Tasting events or educational workshops can also provide opportunities to learn about edible insects Han et al. Another method for improving consumer perception is the creation of cookbooks with insect recipes Raheem et al.
Overall, the repeated positive exposure to edible insects raises awareness and could encourage consumption van Thielen et al. Moreover, an increase in accessibility to edible insects is to develop insect-based ingredients instead of final food products showing their original appearance Mishyna et al.
Incorporating edible insects in already-familiar foods may be more acceptable for an insect-phobic culture than providing insects directly as a food option, and using insects as food ingredients is beneficial for the formation of sustainable business models Han et al. A major hurdle in the edible insect industry is the lack of systematic work to guarantee safety and shelf-life van Huis, Insect farming also requires standardization and quality control, a goal that requires government legislation and regulations Han et al.
High nutritional value, minimal space requirements, and low environmental impact combine to make insects an appealing option for animal feed.
The most promising, well-studied candidates for industrial feed production are black soldier flies, larvae, yellow mealworms, silkworms, grasshoppers, and termites Dobermann et al. Such previous research has revealed that insect meal can partially replace commercial meal in broiler feed, particularly protein sources.
However, a more recent study found that replacing soybean oil with black-soldier-fly-larvae meal has no impacts on the growth performance of broilers Schiavone et al.
In addition to the nutritional value, insect-based feed could have a further advantage in improving the taste of final meat products.
In the Philippines, for example, consumers prefer the taste of pasture-grown chickens fed with grasshoppers, resulting in higher price compared with chickens on commercial feed Litton, Insect-based feeds have also been tested in egg-producing poultry. The replacing fish meal with dried mealworm increased egg production by 2. Fully replacing the protein content with larvae meal in a laying-hen diet did not negative affect feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, egg production hen health, and immune status Marono et al.
Smallholder farms in Asia and Africa commonly use insects as fish feed Dobermann et al. Replacing fish meal with black-soldier-fly meal in diets does not alter the odor, flavor, or texture of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar Lock et al.
Another viable alternative to fish meal is silkworm pupa, which was tested successfully for African catfish Clarias gariepinus fingerling diets Kurbanov et al.
In carp Cyprinus carpio , a silkworm-meal diet was superior to a leaf-meal diet for improving nutrient digestibility, nutrient retention, and feed conversion efficiency Swamy and Devaraj, Before the mass-production of such insect-based feeds, however, governments and companies should aim to address health and safety concerns related to edible insects, such as the presence of anti-nutrient properties Dobermann et al. Insect nutritional value varies with diet, developmental stage, sex, species, growth environment, and measurement methods van Huis and Oonincx, Nevertheless, researchers generally agree that insects are extremely rich in protein, fat, and vitamins Rumpold and Schluter, a.
Nutrient compositions of edible insects as published in literatures based on dry matter is summarized in Table 1. Nitrogen is a critical nutrient, and proteins directly involved in N supply comprise At the upper range, insects provide more protein than even meat and chicken eggs Mlcek et al. However, insect protein digestibility is highly variable due to the presence of a hard exoskeleton van Huis, Exoskeletons with high proportion of chitin component are especially difficult to digest Schluter et al.
Indeed, we currently do not know whether humans are capable of digesting chitin Muzzarelli et al. The second largest component of insect nutrient composition is fat Mlcek et al. Various factors such as species, sex, reproduction stage, season, diet, and habitat all combine to influence insect fat content Schluter et al.
Orthoptera, Lepidoptera caterpillars , cockroaches blattodea , Isoptera termites , Hemiptera, and Coleoptera beetles, grubs have the averaged fat content of Larvae and pupae have more fat than adult insect Mlcek et al. In addition, females are fatty than males de Castro et al. The fatty acid profiles of insects are also dependent on species and diet Schluter et al.
On average, Hymenoptera ants, bees, and wasps and Carbohydrates in insects mainly exist in two forms of chitin and glycogen. The former is a polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine that is the primary component of exoskeleton Bukkens, ; van Huis et al. The averaged carbohydrate content of edible insects ranges from 6. Some insects e. Invertebrates without a mineralized skeleton have very little calcium content de Castro et al.
Most edible insects have similar iron content to beef Bukkens, , but we currently know little about mineral bioavailability of insects de Castro et al. A rare study found that consuming insects can provide the high proportions of daily mineral recommendations for humans, particularly in terms of iron Latunde-Dada et al. The investigations of vitamin content are also insufficient, but available data indicate that edible insects contain carotene, vitamin B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , C, D, E, and K Mlcek et al.
As traditional animal-protein intake methods are called into question, insects are increasingly viewed as the food of the future Sogari, In the Netherlands, the efforts to promote entomophagy include studies aimed at customizing insects for Western tastes, resulting in the sale of some insects e.
Insects have been processed into powder or meal to minimize visual associations and increase palatability Bubler et al. In addition, researchers have been investigating the functional properties of insect proteins, including gelling capacity, foam capacity, emulsion capacity, and solubility in various buffers or solvents. In Table 2 , previous studies regarding the food processing properties functional properties of edible insects are presented.
Appropriate extraction methods e. These studies will help the use of edible insects as a food ingredient for producing traditional foods. Cultures that consume insects also tend to associate them with various health benefits beyond nutrition Raheem et al. For example, caterpillar fungus supposedly has immunostimulatory and anti-cancer properties Chen et al. In traditional Chinese medicine, male Antheraea pernyi is considered aphrodisiac Chen et al.
Some evidence exists to suggest that termites Macrotermes annandalei may have immunostimulatory effects Chen et al. Another insect historically considered to have beneficial health effects is the silkworm Bombyx mori L. Kim et al.
Recent analyses have identified a blood-glucose-lowering agent, resulting in the development of silkworm powder as a diabetic medicine in Korea, and such health benefit was also reported by the Chinese Ministry of Health and State Food and Drug Administration Belluco et al. The traditional claims of medicinal properties have resulted in multiple studies aiming to empirically determine the properties of edible insects.
The several analyses of insect enzymatic hydrolysates have identified antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, as well as the ability to inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme ACE de Castro et al.
The hydrolysates of S.
Insects as food or edible insects are insect species used for human consumption, e. Estimates of numbers of edible insect species consumed globally range from 1, to 2, For a list of edible insects consumed locally see: List of edible insects by country. Insects are nutrient efficient compared to other meat sources. Insects such as crickets are a complete protein and contain a useful amount, comparable with protein from soybeans , though less than in casein found in foods such as cheese.
Alternative protein sources are urgently required as the available land area is not sufficient to satisfy the growing demand for meat. Insects have a high potential of becoming a new sector in the food and feed industry, mainly because of the many environmental benefits when compared to meat production. This will be outlined in the book, as well as the whole process from rearing to marketing. The rearing involves large scale and small scale production, facility design, the management of diseases, and how to assure that the insects will be of high quality genetics. The nutrient content of insects will be discussed and how this is influenced by life stage, diet, the environment and processing. Technological processing requires decontamination, preservation, and ensuring microbial safety.
This review summarizes the current trends related to insect as food resources among consumers, industry, and academia. In Western societies, edible insects have a greater potential as animal feed than as human food because of cultural biases associated with harmful insects, although the abundant characteristics of edible insects should benefit human health. Nevertheless, many countries in Asia, Oceania, Africa, and Latin America utilize insects as a major protein source. Using insects can potentially solve problems related to the conventional food-supply chain, including global water, land, and energy deficits. Academic, industry, and government-led efforts have attempted to reduce negative perceptions of insects through developing palatable processing methods, as well as providing descriptions of health benefits and explaining the necessity of reducing reliance on other food sources. Our overview reveals that entomophagy is experiencing a steady increase worldwide, despite its unfamiliarity to the consumers influenced by Western eating habits. Several projections have suggested that world population will reach over 9 billion by Grafton et al.
The growing global population and awareness of the unsustainability of livestock production have led consumers, companies, organizations, and governments to consider entomophagy eating insects as a more sustainable option. Minilivestock offers advantages over traditional livestock production: with greater diversity, higher nutritional levels, higher energy efficiency, higher reproductive rates, lower environmental footprint, and lower costs. This article aims to demonstrate how the successful implementation of entomophagy in the West can positively contribute to the bioeconomy.
In tropical zones, insects are a common food item as they are more readily available as food in nature than in other climate zones. However, if we want to promote insects as food and feed, harvesting from nature is not an option and the farming of these animals is required. This can be done in environmentally controlled facilities. Insects are not only nutritionally excellent food; they may also have health benefits. When using organic side streams as substrate, chemical and biological contaminants need to be considered.