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M.N. Roy: From Nationalism to Radical Humanism

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Roy was a twentieth century Indian philosopher. He began his career as a militant political activist and left India in in search of arms for organizing an insurrection against British rule in India. Roy developed friendships with several American radicals, and frequented the New York Public Library.

Archives | VOLUME 1 ISSUE 2

Manabendra Nath Roy 22 March — 25 January , born Manabendra Nath Bhattacharya , was an Indian revolutionary , radical activist and political theorist , as well as a noted philosopher in the 20th century. He was also a delegate to congresses of the Communist International and Russia's aide to China.

Following the rise of Joseph Stalin , Roy left the mainline communist movement to pursue an independent radical politics. In Vinay Roy was instrumental in the formation of the Radical Democratic Party , an organisation in which he played a leading role for much of the decade of the s. In the aftermath of World War II Roy moved away from Marxism to espouse the philosophy of radical humanism , attempting to chart a third course between liberalism and communism. Narendra Nath "Naren" Bhattacharya, later known as M.

The Bhattacharyas were Sakta Brahmins — a family of hereditary priests. Following the death of his first wife, the elder Bhattacharya married Basantakumari Devi, the niece of Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan and was appointed as a teacher of Sanskrit in the nearby Arbelia English school. Naren Bhattacharya's early schooling took place at Arbelia. Tall for his age eventually growing to 6 feet , Bhattacharya was strong and athletic.

Towards the end of the 19th Century revolutionary nationalism began to spread among the educated middle classes of Bengal, inspired by the writings of Bankim and Vivekananda. As a school boy, M. N Roy was an ardent admirer of Vinayak Savarkar , 'whose brave and courageous actions were a matter of great inspiration for him and which later on led him to participate in revolutionary movement of various countries around the world. According to one biographer, Roy gained an appreciation from Bankim that true religion required one not to be cloistered from the world, but to work actively for the public good; Vivekananda reinforced this notion of social service and further advanced the idea that Hinduism and Indian culture was superior to anything the western world could offer.

With his cousin and childhood friend Hari Kumar Chakravarti — , he formed a band of free-thinkers including Satcowri Banerjee and the brothers, Saileshvar and Shyamsundar Bose. Two other cousins of Bhattacharya and Chakravarti — Phani and Narendra Chakravarti — often came from Deoghar , where they went to school with Barin Ghosh.

In July a partition of Bengal was announced, scheduled to take effect in October. A spontaneous mass movement aimed at annulment of the partition emerged, giving radical nationalists like Naren Bhattacharya and his co-thinkers an opportunity to build broader support for their ideas.

Under Mokshada's leadership, on 6 December Bhattacharya successfully committed the first act of political banditry to raise money for the secret society. When arrested, he was carrying two seditious books by Barin Ghosh. Defended by the Barrister J.

Roy close friend of Jatindranath Mukherjee or Bagha Jatin and the pleader Promothonath Mukherjee, he got released on bail, thanks to his reputation as a student and social worker. Unhappy with Barin's highly centralised and authoritative way of leadership, Bhattacharya and his group had been looking for something more constructive than making bombs at the Maniktala garden.

Two incidents sharpened their interest in an alternative leadership. Governor; on explaining to Prafulla that the time was not yet ripe, Jatin promised to contact him later. Though Prafulla was much impressed by this hero, Barin cynically commented that it would be too much of an effort for a Government officer to serve a patriotic cause. Shortly after, Phani returned from Darjeeling, after a short holiday: fascinated by Jatin's charisma, he informed his friends about the unusual man.

On hearing Barin censuring Phani for disloyalty, Bhattacharya decided to see that exceptional Dada and got caught for good. Many Indian nationalists, including Roy, became convinced that only an armed struggle against the British Raj would be sufficient to separate India from the British empire. To the furtherance of this end, revolutionary nationalists looked to a rival imperial power, that of Kaiser Wilhelm's Germany , as a potential source of funds and armaments.

In August a massive European war erupted between Britain and Germany. Expatriate Indian nationalists organised as the Indian Revolutionary Committee in Berlin made an informal approach to the German government in support of aid to the cause of anti-British armed struggle in their native land.

The task of obtaining funds and armaments for the coming struggle was entrusted to Naren Bhattacharya. Early in , Bhattacharya set out again, leaving India in search of vaguely promised German armaments which were believed to be en route, somewhere on the Pacific. The actual plan seemed fantastic, as Bhattacharya-Roy later recounted in his posthumously published memoirs:.

The ships were armoured, as many big German vessels were, ready for wartime use. The crew was composed of naval ratings. They had to escape from the internment camp, seize the ships, and sail Several hundred rifles and other small arms with an adequate supply of ammunition could be acquired through Chinese smugglers who would get then on board the ships.

At the last minute, money for the conduct of the operation failed to materialise and "the German Consul General mysteriously disappeared on the day when he was to issue orders for the execution of the plan," Bhattacharya recalled. Disgusted but still holding out hope, Bhattacharya left Indonesia for Japan, hoping to win Japanese support for the independence of Asia from European imperialism, despite Japan's nominal alliance with Great Britain.

Sun Yat-sen refused to assist Bhattacharya in his task of organising anti-British revolution in India, instead expressing faith in the ultimate liberating mission of Japan and his own powerlessness owing to British control of Hong Kong, Sun's base of operations in South China.

Bhattacharya's activities soon drew the attention of the Japanese secret police , who were concerned about Bhattacharya's efforts at fomenting revolution. Further efforts to raise funds for armaments from the German consulate at Hankow resulted in a further tentative agreement. Although they knew he was on board the ship, British authorities stopping the vessel in international waters were unable to locate Bhattacharya in the secret compartment in which he was hurriedly hidden.

The pair fell in love and journeyed together across the country to New York City. German military authorities, on the spot, gave him large amounts of money. The Roys lodged a penniless Mikhail Borodin , the Bolshevik leader, under special circumstances. On the basis of a grateful Borodin's reports on Roy's activities, Moscow was to invite Roy to the 2nd World Congress of the Communist International , held in Moscow during the summer of A few weeks before the Congress, Vladimir Lenin personally received Roy with great warmth.

Material from Roy's pen was published by International Press Correspondence Inprecor , the weekly bulletin of the Communist International. Roy served as a member of the Comintern's Presidium for eight years [29] and at one stage was a member of the Presidium, the Political Secretariat, the Executive Committee, and the World Congress.

Commissioned by Lenin to prepare the East — especially India — for revolution, Roy founded military and political schools in Tashkent. In October , as he formed the Communist Party of India Tashkent group , he contacted his erstwhile revolutionary colleagues who, at this juncture, were hesitating between Radicalism Jugantar and Mohandas K.

Gandhi 's novel programme. Close to the Jugantar in spirit and action, C. Das inspired Roy's confidence. From Moscow, Roy published his major reflections, India in Transition , almost simultaneously translated into other languages.

In Roy's own journal, the Vanguard , which was the organ of the emigre Communist Party of India, was first published. Leading a Comintern delegation appointed by Joseph Stalin to develop agrarian revolution in China, Roy reached Canton in February Despite fulfilling his mission with skill, [ citation needed ] a disagreement with the CCP leaders and Borodin led to a fiasco.

Stalin refused to meet Roy and give him a hearing at the plenum in February Denied a decent treatment for an infected ear, Roy escaped with Nikolai Bukharin 's help, sparing himself Stalin's anger.

Shortly after Trotsky's deportation , on 22 May , Roy received the permission to go abroad for medical treatment on board a Berlin -bound plane of the Russo-German Airline Deruluft. Roy returned to India for the first time in December Roy's political activity in India proved to be brief, on 21 July he was arrested in Bombay on an arrest warrant issued in No trial was held in open court; rather, the proceedings were conducted inside the jail in which Roy was held.

Roy was taken immediately under armed guard to Bareilly Central Jail for completion of his sentence managing, however, he was able to smuggle out the defence statement which he was not allowed to present in court. Roy was unapologetic for his advocacy of the use of armed struggle against British colonialism, in his own defence declaring.

The oppressed people and exploited classes are not obliged to respect the moral philosophy of the ruling power A despotic power is always overthrown by force. The force employed in this process is not criminal. On the contrary, precisely the guns carried by the army of the British government in India are instruments of crime.

They become instruments of virtue when they are turned against the imperialist state. Roy filed an appeal in his case to the Allahabad High Court , but this was dismissed on 2 May — although Roy's sentence was at the same time reduced from 12 years to 6 by the court. Despite his imprisonment, Roy still managed to contribute to the Indian independence movement. A steady stream of letters and articles were smuggled out of jail. He also wrote a page draft manuscript provisionally titled The Philosophical Consequence of Modern Science.

His followers, including A. Alwe, formed the Bombay Provincial Working Class Party in to continue his work while he was imprisoned. Released in November in broken health, Roy went to Allahabad for recovery, invited by Nehru. Nehru, in his presidential address at Faizpur session in December , greeted the presence of Roy, as.

Comrade M. Roy has just come to us after a long and most distressing period in prison, but though shaken up in body, he comes with a fresh mind and heart, eager to take part in that old struggle that knows no end till it ends in success.

From the podium Roy in his speech recommended the capture of power by Constituent Assembly. Unable to collaborate with Gandhi, however, Roy was to stick to his own conviction.

In April , his weekly Independent India appeared and was welcomed by progressive leaders like Bose and Nehru, unlike Gandhi, and the staunch Communists who accused Roy of deviation. In marrying Ellen Gottschalk , his second wife, "Roy found not only a loving wife but also an intelligent helper and close collaborator. Roy proposed an alternative leadership, seized the crisis following Bose's re-election as the Congress President , in in Pune , in June, he formed his League of Radical Congressmen.

Disillusioned with both bourgeois democracy and communism, he devoted the last years of his life to the formulation of an alternative philosophy which he called Radical Humanism and of which he wrote a detailed exposition in Reason, Romanticism and Revolution.

If Nehru had his problems, so had Roy. From early life his sharp intellect was matched by a strong will and extra-ordinary self-confidence.

It would seem that in his long political career there were only two persons and a half who, in his estimate, qualified to be his mentors. The first was Jatin Mukherji or Bagha Jatin from his revolutionary nationalist period; the second was Lenin. The half was Josef Stalin With the declaration of World War II , Roy in a position close to that of Sri Aurobindo condemned the rising totalitarian regimes in Germany and Italy, instead supporting England and France in the fight against fascism.

Gandhi proceeded to foment Quit India in August In response The British imprisoned without trial almost the entire Indian National Congress leadership within hours. Roy's line was clearly different from that of the mainstream of the independence movement.

M.N. Roy: From Nationalism to Radical Humanism

Roy was a Marxist at some stage of his life but later on he became a great critic of Marx and criticized all the important principles of Marxism. According to Roy, dialectical process can be used. Successfully in the field of ideas but it cannot be used. Successfully to explain the material world. Criticism of Economic determinism — As per Roy, economic determinism ignores the importance of those factors which are non economic. Being a deterministic philosophy it leaves no scope for great leaders. Criticism of class struggle — Roy believes that various classes of the society can live in cooperation with each other.

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:. View project. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. Ramendra Ph. All rights reserved, including the right of repro- duction in whole or in part in any form. Roy's New Humanism 13 II. Materialism 47 III.

The handloom sector plays a strategic role in the upliftment of rural economy of India. Even today, the rural people of India mostly women grossly depend on the handloom sector after Agriculture, which requires minimum capital and less technical skills and also gives them a dependable source on income. In Assam , the handloom sector has an overwhelming presence in its socio economic life. Assam is proud owner of more than 13 lakhs looms out of the total 28 lakhs looms of the country. The Study is based on both primary and secondary data.

UGC NET Political Science Syllabus 2021: Pdf Download

Manabendra Nath Roy March 21, — January 25, was an Bengali Indian revolutionary, philosoper, political theorist and activist as well as the exponent of the philosophy of Radical Humanism. He was also an international Communist leader and theorist, though, later, he denounced communism. Born as Narendra Nath Bhattacharya , Roy joined the revolutionary underground movement for Indian national liberation at the age of He attempted, in , an armed insurrection against the British, which was crushed. Martin left for Batavia, and then to Shanghai, seeking German arms for Indian revolutionaries.

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Manabendra Nath Roy 22 March — 25 January , born Manabendra Nath Bhattacharya , was an Indian revolutionary , radical activist and political theorist , as well as a noted philosopher in the 20th century. He was also a delegate to congresses of the Communist International and Russia's aide to China. Following the rise of Joseph Stalin , Roy left the mainline communist movement to pursue an independent radical politics. In Vinay Roy was instrumental in the formation of the Radical Democratic Party , an organisation in which he played a leading role for much of the decade of the s. In the aftermath of World War II Roy moved away from Marxism to espouse the philosophy of radical humanism , attempting to chart a third course between liberalism and communism.

M.N.Roy - A Photo Album

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[PDF Download] M.N. Roy: Radical Humanist: Selected Writings [Download] Online

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Створки с шипением разъехались в стороны. Он вошел. Сьюзан стояла перед ним, промокшая, взъерошенная, в его пиджаке, накинутом на плечи. Она выглядела как первокурсница, попавшая под дождь, а он был похож на студента последнего курса, одолжившего ей свою куртку. Впервые за многие годы коммандер почувствовал себя молодым. Его мечта была близка к осуществлению. Однако, сделав еще несколько шагов, Стратмор почувствовалчто смотрит в глаза совершенно незнакомой ему женщины.

У меня нет на это времени, - сказала себе Сьюзан.

Books by M.N. Roy

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